Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory
Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:
- In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
- In 250-300 words, explain what scientismis and describe two of the main arguments against it.
- In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview:
- What is ultimate reality?
- What is the nature of the universe?
- What is a human being?
- What is knowledge?
- What is your basis of ethics?
- What is the purpose of your existence?
Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.
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The Christian Perspective of the Nature of Spirituality and Ethics in Contrast to the Perspective of Postmodern Relativism within Health Care
Spirituality entails how one seeks and expresses purpose and meaning and how one experiences the connectedness with self, nature, or others. Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality is founded on the Trinity, the scriptures, and the nature of Christ. Christians believe in God, who exists as God the father, son, and the Holy Spirit (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). He is the creator and the sustainer of life. Spirituality is based on humans building a relationship with God. With the main focus being imitating Christ. The Christian perspective of spirituality is obtained from the scriptures. From a Christian perspective, the moral capacity of human beings cannot be separated from the intrinsic spirituality of humans. Ethics and the nature of spirituality are founded on the nature of God and the desire to please Him. Human beings are moral since they are knowledgeable of right and wrong and are created in God’s image, and their desire is to emulate God, who is holy. They must uphold morality. The scriptures comprise various characters that act as role models enabling the Christians to understand themselves and their role. Ethical principles are applied in decision-making based on the context of Christian morality. Healthcare decisions made from a Christian perspective are made from objective truth and therefore consistent and coherent.
Postmodern relativism is based on the argument that there is no absolute truth and presents an understanding that spirituality is absolute. The perspective has ambiguity in the argument on the existence of God. According to postmodern relativism, no argument should be discarded on the basis of being contradictory. Decisions are therefore based on the individual, their values, experiences, the circumstance and preferences (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). The view supports the concept of multicultural care and diversity. There is, therefore, a significant need for nurses to become knowledgeable on different worldviews to promote compassion and open-mindedness while delivering care.
Explain What Scientism is and describe two of the Main Arguments Against it
Scientism presents a view that the only way to possess knowledge of reality is by means of science. The term refers to attitudes and methods that are attributed to the natural scientist. It can also be defined as an exaggerated reliance or trust in the efficacy of natural method science and its application to investigation areas, including humanities, social sciences, and philosophy. Scientism is an extreme belief in the power of science and knowledge. Scientism discards everything that fails to satisfy scientific methodologies (Burnett, 2021). Scientism is a philosophy that determines what can and cannot be known. Anything that does not satisfy scientific methodologies cannot be known and has no existence. The philosophy holds the view that true beliefs about anything are dependent on scientific knowledge about the issue. Science is different from scientism since science focuses on empirical observation, well-known features, and testability. Scientism, on the other hand, is a philosophy focusing on nature and the limits of science, and the knowledge that human beings can possess (Bogue & Hogan, 2020).
Two arguments against scientism are that it has limits and is self-refuting. Scientism is limited since it is not the only way of gaining knowledge. Scientism cannot be applied in certain areas, such as in ethics and the application of scientific evidence. It cannot be used to determine morality, even though it is used to describe things. It is not applicable to use science to determine what is right. The second argument is that scientism is referentially incoherent or self-refuting. Based on scientism, only theories and claims formulated scientifically can be rationally believed and accepted. The argument is based on the assumption that it is impossible to make a scientific case for scientism if scientism was to be justified scientifically; hence it fails to meet its standards (Moreland, 2018).