Why is bipedalism considered such a significant development in evolution?

Why is bipedalism considered such a significant development in evolution?

Why is bipedalism considered such a significant development in evolution? 150 150 Nyagu

ASM 104 Spring 2021 Name: ________________ Lab 5: Paleoanthropology & Early Hominins/Humans (65 Points) Due: on or before 11:59 pm Sunday, April 25th (Can be turned in late up to two-days with 5% per day point penalty and no revisions) (Completed labs submitted early/on time will be eligible for revisions) Instructions: 1. Either PRINT OUT this lab or WRITE OUT the questions (you do not need to copy down all the instructions) and answer by HAND. 2. Once complete, either SCAN the pages OR take PICTURES and submit as PDFs, JPGs or JPEGs 3. VIEW your submission to make sure ALL pages are present and answers are visible. Note: (1) this is individual work; assignments that are identical or very similar to another student’s will not receive credit (2) answers must be legible, dark enough to read and pages scanned in the correct orientation/order or student will be required to resubmit work (with a potential late penalty) and (3) only those portions of labs completed will be eligible for revisions. Please use the Lab PDF and videos found in the module to answer related questions. Part I: Geology and Dating: (14 points) Activity 1: Stratigraphy (11 points) The diagram (Slide #1 in Lab PDF) represents an “outcrop”, a rocky exposure such as those seen on the sides of cliffs. In outcrops, the strata or beds are the result of some previous natural geological event or process, such as a flood or erosion. Over time, the accumulation of these processes causes layers of sediment to pile up and form sedimentary sequences. According to the Law of Superposition, the older strata are deeper in the earth and the younger ones are closer to the surface. However, the process of erosion can cause unconformities, in which strata that are not chronological in sequence can be in contact with one another. Notice that Bed 3 is not continuous so that Beds 2 and 4 are in contact with each other. We can still be sure that all of Bed 2 is younger than Bed 3. Note that there are fossils (A,B,C,D) in the beds. Answer the following questions: HINTS: • • • A mix of silt, pebbles and other unsorted sediments are the result of flooding Sandy sediment (and sandstone) often reflects an extended arid period Bed 2 is about 5 million years old and Bed 4 is about 7.5 million years old. 1. Which is older, Fossil B or Fossil C? 2. Which bed (give the number) contains Fossil C? Page | 1 3. A volcano 100-miles from this fossil locality has erupted several times, each time spewing ash for hundreds of miles. Which stratum or strata formed during times of volcanic activity? 4. Which fossil or fossils was/were deposited around the time of flooding? 5. Which is younger, Fossil A or Fossil C? Explain how you determined this. 6. Which stratum probably formed during arid periods of time? 7. Fossil A is bracketed by bed 2 and bed 4. What can you determine (relatively) about the age of Fossil A? (take a look at the hints) Activity 2: Absolute Dating (4 points) One of the methods of absolute dating is Potassium-Argon dating. This method is used to date rocks that have been heated to a very high temperature, such as those that result from a volcanic eruption. In this composite stratigraphy, the solid black lines represent ash fall layers, or tuffs, that have been dated using the K-Ar method. In between each tuff are geologic members, in which many fossils have been found. 1. What date range would you assign to a hominin skull that was found in the KBS Member? 2. Which is older, the Upper Burgi Member or the Chari Member? Page | 2 Part II: Geography & Geographical Distribution of early hominins (24 points) 1. Using the labeled map of Africa (Slide #2), identify the marked countries, bodies of water and/or geological areas. These are all related to areas discussed in lecture. (Hint: C is a geological region; E and F are lakes). a. _______________________ b. ___________________ c. _______________________ d. ___________________ e. _______________________ f. ___________________ g. _______________________ h. ___________________ 2. Now, place the following sites in the appropriate boxes on the map on the next page. Also indicate what hominin is found there (you may write the name (not nickname) next to the site). This should be a hominin we discussed in lecture. Djurab Desert Hadar Koobi Fora Laetoli Olduvai Sterkfontein Taung Tugen Hills Page | 3 Page | 4 Part III: Movie “Search for the First Humans” (26 points) – not eligible for revisions. 1. Why is bipedalism considered such a significant development in evolution? (1 point) 2. What is the ‘Savannah Theory’ of bipedalism development (explain with detail)? (2 points) 3. How did Lucy support it? (2 points) 4. According to the video, how do femurs differ between bipeds and quadrupeds? List two ways. (4 points) a. b. 5. Discuss what the movie tells you about Orrorin tugenensis (include locomotion, living patterns, diet, etc.) (6 points) Page | 5 6. How has studying the behavior of orangutans helped solidify arguments that bipedalism may have arisen in trees? (3 points) 7. According to the video, with the discovery of Orrorin tugenensis, how have ideas about the development of bipedalism changed? List two reasons. (4 points) a. b. 8. Why do the paleoanthropologists in the video think that Lucy needs to be removed from our direct lineage? Discuss two reasons (be specific). (4 points) a. b. Page | 6 Lab #5 – PART I: ACTIVITY 1 SLIDE #1 Lab #5 – PART II (Question #1): AFRICA SLIDE #2 LAB #6 – PART I: STATION 1: SKULL SLIDE #3 LAB #6 – PART I: STATION 2: PELVIS Ilium HUMAN CHIMPANZEE SLIDE #4 AFARENSIS LAB #6 – PART I: STATION 4: FEMUR Chimpanzee A. afarensis SLIDE #5 Human LAB #6 – PART I: STATION 4: FOOT Chimpanzee SLIDE #6 Human LAB #6 – PART I: STATION 4: FOOT SLIDE #7 LAB #6 – PART II: STATION 1: HOMO HABILIS COMPARISON SLIDE #8 LAB #6 – PART II: STATION 2: Stone Tools A C D SLIDE #9 B E PART II: STATION 3: H. ergaster vs. H. erectus H. ergaster (Africa) H. erectus (Asia) SLIDE #10 H. ergaster (Eurasia)
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