What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?

What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?

What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants? 150 150 Nyagu

Student’s)name)removed) Dr.$Tintjer$ Evolution$and$Diversity$ 2/16/13$ It is not necessary to start with a definition News$Summary$Two:$Speciation$ $ Speciation$is$defined$as$the$development$from$one$species$branching$off$into$two$or$ Take care not to use wording or definitions straight from the textbook more$new$species$(Reece$et$al.$2011,$p$488).$A$primary$step$in$the$creation$of$new$species$is$ reproductive$isolation,$which$disallows$species$from$interbreeding.$This$allows$one$species$to$ reproduce$exclusively$with$each$other$and$become$more$and$more$diverse,$thus$halting$gene$ flow$(Reece$et$al.$2011,$p$489).$In$the$article$“Feeding$Birds$Could$Create$New$Species,”$author$ Brandon$Keim$addresses$how$such$isolation$is$currently$being$seen$in$Central$European$black$ Notice how the writer integrated information from the textbook with the summary warblers.$Elaborating$off$of$the$article’s$title,$speciation$is$actually$being$seen$due$to$a$surplus$ of$food$being$laid$out$for$the$birds$by$humans.$The$remainder$of$the$article$seeks$to$find$out$ why.$ $ Why the study was conducted Originally,$the$black$warblers$that$flew$north$from$Austria$and$Germany$tended$to$have$ very$limited$sources$of$food$in$the$winter$and$ended$up$dying.$Instead,$the$ideal$migration$ pattern$would$be$approximately$one$thousand$miles$south$to$the$Mediterranean.$However,$ over$the$recent$years,$people$from$the$United$Kingdom$have$been$laying$out$a$great$ abundance$of$food$for$the$birds$to$eat,$causing$thirty$percent$of$the$black$warblers$to$actually$ go$north$instead.$This$migration$north$is$about$360$miles$less$distance$than$the$Mediterranean.$ The$reduction$in$distance$allowed$these$populations$of$birds$to$arrive$back$in$the$summer$ quicker$than$those$who$flew$south.$Therefore,$now$that$they$are$in$this$environment$alone$ without$their$south]flying$counterparts,$they$have$a$higher$chance$of$mating$exclusively$with$ each$other.$What$this$means$in$terms$of$speciation$is$that$the$north$flying$birds$are$gradually$ beginning$to$evolve$rounded$wings$that$give$up$long$distance$flying$capabilities$for$increased$ maneuverability.$Beak$sizes$are$also$shrinking$because$rather$than$eating$the$olives$in$the$ Mediterranean,$insects$are$the$more$popular$diet.$$ $ A good description of the results, but the methods are lacking Overall,$this$occurrence$is$a$great$example$of$temporal$isolation,$a$type$of$prezygotic$ barrier.$Temporal$isolation$is$when$species$breed$in$a$different$timeframe$than$another$species$ (Reece$et$al.$2011,$p$490).$Basically,$the$thirty$percent$of$birds$who$traveled$north$has$saved$ Another nice example of integrating the summary with textbook/course topics approximately$720$miles$total.$Although$they$will$ultimately$be$returning$to$the$same$ environment$as$the$southern$black$warblers,$their$reproduction$will$happen$at$different$ isolated$times.$The$article$concludes$that$the$two$black$warblers$being$studied$have$not$ completely$become$separate$species,$but$at$this$rate,$it$is$very$possible$for$their$traits$to$ become$distinguishable$enough$to$call$them$different$species.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Reference$List$ This should be the name of the source- Wirednot the publisher (the publisher’s name $ is used in the reference for a book) Keim$B.$2009$Dec$3.$Feeding$Birds$Could$Create$New$Species$[Internet].$Condé$Nast;$ [cited$2013$Feb$16].$Available$from:$ http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bird]feeding]evolution/$ $ Reece$JB,$Urry$LA,$Cain$ML,$Wasserman$SA,$Minorsky$PV,$Jackson$RB.$The$Origin$of$ Species.$Cambell$Biology.$9th$Ed.$Boston$(MA):$Pearson$Education;$2011.$p$488,$489,$ 490$ $ $ Campbell Biology, 11e (Urry) Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea 14.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements is correct in describing the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross? A) A monohybrid cross involves a single parent, whereas a dihybrid cross involves two parents. B) A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters that are being studied, and a monohybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for only one character being studied. C) A monohybrid cross is performed for one generation, whereas a dihybrid cross is performed for two generations. D) A monohybrid cross results in a 9:3:3:1 ratio, whereas a dihybrid cross gives a 3:1 ratio. Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 2) What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants? A) There is considerable genetic variation in garden peas. B) Traits are inherited in discrete units and are not the result of “blending.” C) Recessive genes occur more frequently in the F1 generation than do dominant ones. D) Genes are composed of DNA. Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 3) How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE? A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 64 Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 4) The individual with genotype AaBbCCDdEE can make many kinds of gametes. Which of the following correctly describes why this situation is possible? A) recurrent mutations form new alleles B) crossing over during prophase I leads to genetic variety C) different possible assortment of chromosomes into gametes occurs D) there is a tendency for dominant alleles to segregate together Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 1 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 5) Mendel continued some of his experiments into the F2 or F3 generation in order to ________. A) obtain a larger number of offspring on which to base statistics B) observe whether or not a recessive trait would reappear C) observe whether or not the dominant trait would reappear D) distinguish which alleles were segregating Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 6) Which of the following statements about independent assortment or segregation is correct? A) The law of independent assortment describes the behavior of two or more genes relative to one another. B) The law of segregation describes the behavior of two or more genes relative to one another. C) The law of independent assortment is accounted for by observations of prophase I of meiosis. D) The law of segregation is accounted for by anaphase of mitosis. Answer: A Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 7) A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a gamete from this organism? A) Hh B) HhTt C) T D) HT Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 8) Which of the following statements correctly describes how Mendel accounted for the observation that traits had disappeared in the F1 generation and then reappeared in the F2 generation? A) New mutations were frequently generated in the F2 progeny, causing traits that had been lost in the F1 to reappear in the F2. B) The mechanism controlling the appearance of traits was different between the F1 and the F2 plants. C) Traits can be dominant or recessive, and the recessive traits were “hidden” by the dominant ones in the F1. D) Members of the F1 generation had only one allele for each trait, but members of the F2 had two alleles for each trait. Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 2 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 9) Which of the following statements correctly explains the fact that all seven of the pea plant traits studied by Mendel obeyed the principle of independent assortment? A) None of the traits obeyed the law of segregation. B) The diploid number of chromosomes in the pea plants was seven. C) All of the genes controlling the traits were located on the same chromosome. D) All of the genes controlling the traits behaved as if they were on different chromosomes. Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Synthesis/Evaluation Section: 14.1 10) Mendel’s observation of the segregation of alleles in gamete formation has its basis in which of the following phases of cell division? A) prophase I of meiosis B) anaphase II of meiosis C) metaphase II of meiosis D) anaphase I of meiosis Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Synthesis/Evaluation Section: 14.1 11) Mendel’s law of independent assortment has its basis in which of the following events of meiosis I? A) synapsis of homologous chromosomes B) crossing over of homologous pairs of chromosomes C) alignment of pairs of homologous chromosomes along the middle of the cell D) the division of cells at telophase Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Synthesis/Evaluation Section: 14.1 3 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 12) Use the figure and the following description to answer the question. In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with dark leaves? A) 1 only B) 2 and 3 C) 4 only D) 1, 2, and 3 Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 4 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 13) Use the figure and the following description to answer the question. In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with a heterozygous genotype? A) 1 B) 1, 2, and 3 C) 2 and 3 D) 2, 3, and 4 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 5 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 14) Use the figure and the following description to answer the question. In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants that will be true-breeding? A) 1 and 4 only B) 2 and 3 only C) 1, 2, 3, and 4 D) 1 only Answer: A Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 15) Skin color in a certain species of fish is inherited by a single gene with four different alleles. How many different types of gametes would be possible in this organism? A) 2 B) 4 C) 8 D) 16 Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 16) Why did all of the F1 offspring of Mendel’s classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties? A) No genes interacted to produce the parental phenotype. B) Each allele affected phenotypic expression. C) The traits blended together during fertilization. D) One allele was dominant. Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.1 6 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 17) Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants and then allowed the offspring to self-pollinate to produce an F2 generation. The results were as follows: 6,022 yellow and 2,001 green (8,023 total). Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship of the allele for green seeds to the allele for yellow seeds? A) The green allele is dominant to the yellow allele. B) The two alleles exhibit incomplete dominance. C) The green allele is recessive to the yellow allele. D) The two alleles are codominant. Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 18) Albinism is a recessive trait. A man and woman both show normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who has albinism (without melanin pigmentation). What is the probability that their first child will have albinism? A) 0 B) 1/2 C) 1/4 D) 1 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 19) Albinism is a recessive trait. A man and woman who both have normal pigmentation have one child out of three who has albinism (without melanin pigmentation). What are the genotypes of this child’s parents? A) One parent must be homozygous for the recessive allele; the other parent can be homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, or heterozygous. B) One parent must be heterozygous; the other parent can be homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, or heterozygous. C) Both parents must be heterozygous. D) One parent must be homozygous dominant; the other parent must be heterozygous. Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 20) A black guinea pig crossed with a guinea pig with albinism produced 12 black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second black animal, six blacks and six albinos were obtained. What is the best explanation for this genetic situation? A) Albinism is a recessive trait; black is a dominant trait. B) Albinism is a dominant trait; black is incompletely dominant. C) Albinism and black are codominant. D) Albinism is a recessive trait; black is codominant. Answer: A Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 7 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 21) Gray seed color in peas is dominant to white. Assume that Mendel conducted a series of experiments where plants with gray seeds were crossed among themselves, and the following progeny were produced: 302 gray and 98 white. What is the most probable genotype of each parent? A) GG × gg B) Gg × Gg C) GG × Gg D) gg × Gg Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 22) When Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants, all the offspring were yellow-seeded. When he took these F1 yellow-seeded plants and crossed them to green-seeded plants, what genotypic ratio was expected? A) 1:2:1 B) 3:1 C) 1:1 D) 1:1:1:1 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.1 23) Black fur in mice (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). Short tails (T) are dominant to long tails (t). What fraction of the progeny of crosses BbTt × BBtt will be expected to have black fur and long tails? A) 1/16 B) 3/8 C) 1/2 D) 9/16 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 24) In pea plants, the tall phenotype is dominant to the dwarf phenotype. If a heterozygous pea plant is crossed with a homozygous tall pea plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be dwarf in size? A) 1 B) 1/2 C) 1/4 D) 0 Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 8 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 25) What is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC in a cross of individuals who both possess this genotype: AaBbCc? A) 1/4 B) 1/8 C) 1/16 D) 1/64 Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 26) Given the following genotypes for two parents, AABBCc × AabbCc, assume that all traits exhibit simple dominance and independent assortment. What proportion of the progeny of this cross will be expected to phenotypically resemble the first parent with the genotype AABBCc? A) 1/4 B) 3/4 C) 3/8 D) 1 Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 27) Which of the following statements best describes the addition rule of probability? A) the probability that two or more independent events will occur simultaneously B) the probability that either one of two independent events will occur C) the probability of producing two or more heterozygous offspring D) the likelihood that a trait is due to two or more meiotic events Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.2 28) Which of the following calculations require the use of the addition rule of probability? A) Calculate the probability of black offspring from the cross AaBb × AaBb, where B is the symbol for black. B) Calculate the probability of children with both cystic fibrosis and polydactyly when parents are each heterozygous for both genes. C) Calculate the probability of each of four children having cystic fibrosis if the parents are both heterozygous. D) Calculate the probability of a child having either sickle-cell anemia or cystic fibrosis if parents are each heterozygous for both. Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 9 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 29) Two true-breeding stocks of pea plants are crossed. One parent has red, axial flowers, and the other has white, terminal flowers; all F1 individuals have red, axial flowers. The genes for flower color and location assort independently. Among the F2 offspring, what is the probability of producing plants with white axial flowers? A) 9/16 B) 1/16 C) 3/16 D) 1/4 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 30) A man has extra digits (six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot). His wife and their daughter have the normal number of digits (five fingers on each hand and five toes on each foot.) Having extra digits is a dominant trait. The couple’s second child has extra digits. What is the probability that their next (third) child will have extra digits? A) 1/2 B) 1/16 C) 1/8 D) 3/4 Answer: A Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 31) Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by a recessive autosomal allele. If a woman and her husband are both carriers, what is the probability that their first child will be a phenotypically normal girl? A) 1/4 B) 1/16 C) 3/16 D) 3/8 Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 32) Assuming independent assortment for all gene pairs, what is the probability that a cross between the following parents, AABbCc × AaBbCc, will produce an AaBbCc offspring? A) 1/2 B) 1/16 C) 1/8 D) 3/4 Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 10 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 33) Suppose two individuals with the genotype AaBbCc are mated. Assuming that the genes are not linked, what fraction of the offspring are expected to be homozygous recessive for the three traits? A) 1/4 B) 1/8 C) 1/16 D) 1/64 Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.2 34) In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous (CRCW) offspring of red (CRCR) and white (CWCW) homozygotes. Which of the following crosses would produce offspring in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white? A) red × white B) roan × roan C) white × roan D) red × roan Answer: B Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application/Analysis Section: 14.3 35) Which of the following inheritance patterns describes the ability of a single allele to have multiple phenotypic effects? A) incomplete dominance B) multiple alleles C) pleiotropy D) epistasis Answer: C Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.3 36) Which of the following phenotypes is an example of polygenic inheritance? A) pink flowers in snapdragons B) the ABO blood group in humans C) white and purple flower color in peas D) skin pigmentation in humans Answer: D Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension Section: 14.3 11 Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 37) Hydrangea plants of the same genotype are planted in a large flower garden. Some of the plants produce blue flowers and others pink flowers. This can…
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