What statement by the client would confirm this?

What statement by the client would confirm this?

What statement by the client would confirm this? 150 150 Nyagu

Pharmacology Exam
Pharmacology Exam Question 1
1 out of 1 points

The nurse’s assessment of a community-dwelling adult suggests that the client may have drug allergies that have not been previously documented. What statement by the client would confirm this?

Response Feedback: True allergic reactions include formation of rash or hives, itching, redness, swelling, difficulty breathing, and anaphylactic shock. Nausea and vomiting, however, are adverse effects of drug therapy. Similarly, an unsafe drop in blood pressure and gastric bleeding from aspirin use are adverse drug effects, not allergic reactions.
Question 2
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1 out of 1 points

A patient has been prescribed several drugs and fluids to be given intravenously. Before the nurse starts the intravenous administration, a priority assessment of the patient will be to note the

Response Feedback: Baseline body weight and height, heart rate, and blood pressure are all important considerations during the assessment of a patient. However, if a patient has to be given drugs intravenously, it is important to inspect the skin for rashes, moles, or sores, so those areas can be avoided as an insertion or injection site.
Question 3
1 out of 1 points

A nurse has been administering a drug to a patient intramuscularly (IM). The physician discontinued the IM dose and wrote an order for the drug to be given orally. The nurse notices that the oral dosage is considerably higher than the parenteral dose and understands that this due to

Response Feedback: The first-pass effect involves drugs that are given PO and absorbed from the small intestine directly into the portal venous system, which delivers the drug molecules to the liver. Once in the liver, enzymes break the drug into metabolites; they may become active or may be deactivated and readily excreted from the body. A large percentage of the oral dose is usually destroyed and never reaches tissues. Oral dosages account for this phenomenon to ensure an appropriate amount of the drug in the body to produce a therapeutic action. Passive diffusion is the major process through which drugs are absorbed into the body. Active transport is a process that uses energy to actively move a molecule across a cell membrane and is often involved in drug excretion in the kidney. Glomerular filtration is the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule.
Question 4
1 out of 1 points

A patient has been receiving regular doses of an agonist for 2 weeks. Which of the following should the nurse anticipate? Pharmacology Exam

Response Feedback: Receptors are not static; they can change or modify their response to a stimulus. Such change occurs when a receptor is continuously stimulated to act or continually inhibited from action. Continual stimulation from an agonist usually makes the receptor desensitized to the drug and thus less active. Therefore, the nurse should anticipate a decrease in effectiveness of the drug.
Question 5
1 out of 1 points

An unconscious patient has been brought to the hospital, and the physician has prescribed a life-saving drug to be administered parenterally. Which of the following methods would be the most appropriate for the nurse to use when administering the medication?

Response Feedback: Intravenous infusion is the preferred method for use in emergency situations when rapid drug effects are desired. Absorption is considered to be instantaneous, as the drug is placed directly into the bloodstream. The subcutaneous and intramuscular routes could be used but would not ensure rapid drug effects. Intrathecal administration is usually done by a physician or a specially trained health care provider.
Question 6
1 out of 1 points

In order to promote therapeutic drug effects, the nurse should always encourage patients to

Response Feedback: Taking a drug at the appropriate time will help the patient maintain therapeutic drug levels. Not all medications should be taken with food, which can alter the absorption of some drugs. A patient should never increase or decrease a medication dosage without checking with the prescriber. Alternative therapy should only be used if the patient has discussed the therapy with the prescriber and they are in agreement.
Question 7
1 out of 1 points

A 56-year-old female patient has been admitted to the hospital with chronic muscle spasms and has been prescribed a new medication to treat the spasms. She has a poorly documented allergy to eggs, synthetic clothes, and perfumes. What is the priority action of the nurse to ensure that prescribed medication does not experience an allergic reaction?

Response Feedback: The nurse should post an allergies notice on the front of the chart and document the allergies in the appropriate area of the patient’s record; this will allow continuous access of the dietary staff and the other members of the health care team to the information and serve to limit errors. The prescriber would always ask the patient about her allergies before prescribing a new medication. The patient is not having an allergic reaction, so treating her for an allergic reaction is unnecessary. If the allergies are documented in the appropriate area of the patient’s record, the dietary staff will be aware that the patient should not be served eggs.
Question 8
1 out of 1 points

A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient’s medication regimen. Which of the patient’s medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?

Response Feedback: Metabolism of many varied drugs such as calcium channel blockers (used to treat hypertension), statins (used to lower blood lipid levels), and antihistamines (used to prevent allergic reactions) is affected by grapefruit juice.
Question 9
1 out of 1 points

Which of the following affects drug distribution throughout the body?

Response Feedback: Both protein binding and altered pH of extracellular fluids affect drug distribution. The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract affects drug absorption, whereas an increase in hepatic enzymes affects drug metabolism. High blood levels are not known to affect drug pharmacokinetics.
Question 10
1 out of 1 points

A patient is treated with an antibiotic for an infection in his leg. After 2 days of taking the antibiotic, the patient calls the clinic and reports that he has a rash all over his body. The nurse is aware that a rash can be an adverse effect of an antibiotic and can be either a biologic, chemical, or physiologic action of the drug, which is an example of

Response Feedback: Pharmacodynamics is the biologic, chemical, and physiologic actions of a particular drug within the body and the study of how those actions occur, including adverse effects. It is how the drug affects the body. The pharmacodynamics of a drug is responsible for its therapeutic effects and sometimes its adverse effects. Pharmacotherapeutics refers to the desired, therapeutic effect of the drug. Pharmacokinetics is the changes that occur to the drug while it is inside the body. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variables affect the pharmacodynamics of a drug in a specific patient. Pharmacology Exam
Pharmacology Exam Question 11
1 out of 1 points

A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of

Response Feedback: The incidence of hypertension is significantly higher among African-Americans than other ethnic groups. As well, African Americans respond to some antihypertensive drugs differently than whites.
Question 12
1 out of 1 points

A patient has been prescribed 1 mg lorazepam (Ativan) sublingual prior to the scheduled insertion of a peripherally inserted central (PIC) line. How should the nurse direct the patient when administering this medication?

Response Feedback: Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue where they dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream. Swallowing the pill may render it less effective, but is not unsafe. It is not recommended to chew and hold sublingual medications nor to hold them in the mouth for length of time.
Question 13
1 out of 1 points

Tylenol 325 mg/tablet, patient needs 650 mg; how many tables should patient take?
Question 14
1 out of 1 points

In which of the following patients would a nurse expect to experience alterations in drug metabolism?

Response Feedback: The liver is the most important site for drug metabolism. If the liver is not functioning effectively, as with cirrhosis, drugs will not be metabolized normally and toxic levels could develop. Drug dosage will have to be altered to ensure normal levels in the body. The patient with kidney stones and the patient in acute renal failure would most likely have alterations in drug excretion. If there are no complications with the cervical cancer patient, there should be no alterations in drug therapy Pharmacology Exam.
Question 15
1 out of 1 points

For which of the following patients would a nasogastric tube most likely be considered to aid in the administration of medications?

Response Feedback: The use of an NG tube for medication administration requires a functioning GI tract. An NG tube would not be used if a patient is vomiting frequently or has had recent bowel surgery. Similarly, an NG tube would not be used in the case of a competent adult who wishes to discontinue his or her medications.
Question 16
1 out of 1 points

A home health nurse notes that there have been changes to a patient’s oral drug regimen. The nurse will closely monitor the new drug regimen to

Response Feedback: Changes in the drug regimen may cause changes in drug absorption and thereby decrease the anticipated drug effect. This decrease is due to the prevention of binding and loss of absorption and overall drug effectiveness. A change in the drug regimen would not help a nurse to track the route of metabolism or determine the speed of chelation. If any adverse effect were to occur as a result of a drug regimen change, it would not necessarily be immunotoxicity; it could also be nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, or cardiotoxicity.
Pharmacology Exam Question 17
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is instructing a patient concerning a newly prescribed drug. Which of the following should be included to help improve patient compliance and safety?

Response Feedback: If patients are aware of certain adverse effects and how to alleviate or decrease the discomfort, they are more likely to continue taking the medication and providing for safe administration. A list of pharmacies can be useful information, but will not improve safety or compliance. Knowing the cost of the brand versus the generic could also be helpful to the patient. However, a substitution may not be allowed, and the cost of a drug does not improve patient safety. Most patients are not concerned with statistics regarding drug testing, and the testing is usually not discussed with patients.
Question 18
1 out of 1 points

5 ml = _______________tsp
Question 19
1 out of 1 points

An older adult patient with a history of Alzheimer’s disease and numerous chronic health problems has been prescribed several medications during his current admission to hospital and recent declines in the patient’s cognition have impaired his ability to swallow pills. Which of the following medications may the nurse crush before administering them to this patient?

Response Feedback: A tablet that is designed for immediate release into the gastric environment is normally safe to crush and administer to the patient. Enteric coated and sustained release tablets may not be crushed because doing so compromising the delayed release into the GI tract that is intended with these medications. Sublingual medications should be placed under the tongue to dissolve rather than swallowed.
Question 20
1 out of 1 points

A patient who has been admitted to the hospital for a mastectomy has stated that she has experienced adverse drug effects at various times during her life. Which of the following strategies should the nurse prioritize in order to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects during the patient’s stay in the hospital?

Response Feedback: In an effort to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects, it is necessary to closely monitor the patient. It would be inappropriate for the nurse to alter the route or frequency of administration or to encourage herbal remedies that also carry the potential for adverse effects. Pharmacology Exam