What are the three main “players” in the female reproductive cycle?

What are the three main “players” in the female reproductive cycle?

What are the three main “players” in the female reproductive cycle? 150 150 Nyagu

BIOLOGY 21 ON-LINE LAB 9: REPRODUCTION & STDS The reproductive system is vital to success of life on earth – if a species cannot reproduce itself, it will become extinct. This week, we first consider the anatomy of both the male and female reproductive systems, and then the hormonal mechanisms behind reproduction. We will provide an overview of sexually transmitted diseases or infections (STDs or STIs), including essential information on their prevention. Materials needed for this week’s lab: From the Bio 21 packet: condom or dental dam (if requested) for optional Activity 5. ACTIVITY 1: OVERVIEW OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Refer to Section 16.1 in your textbook to answer the following. 1. Diagram the pathway of sperm through the male reproductive tract. Use arrows to show the path, i.e., Structure A ➔ Structure B, etc. Testes ➔ Epididymis ➔ Vas deferens ➔ Ejaculatory Duct ➔ Urethra 2. Indicate the function for each major structure in the male reproductive system listed below: Part Prostate gland Urethra Penis Seminal vesicle Vas deferens Bulbourethral gland Human Biology: Lab 9 Function A gland in the mammalian male that secretes alkaline seminal fluid and contains fructose for the nourishment of sperm. tube that carries urine from bladder during urination and semen from vas deferens (though never at the same time) cylindrical shaped organ that hangs in front of scrotum t hat functions in sexualintercourse. Increased blood flow causes it to become erect pair of organs that each have duct to join to each vas de ferens. Produce secretion contain fructose to nourish sperm. tube the carries sperm from epididymis to urethra during ejaculation. Also called Cowper’s glands, these are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This 9.1 fluid serves to lubricate Epididymis Human Biology: Lab 9 In response to sexual stimulation, the bulbourethral glands secrete an alkaline mucus-like fluid. This fluid neutralizes the acidity of the urine residue in the urethra, helps to neutralize the acidity of the vagina, and provides some lubrication for the tip of the penis during intercourse. 9.2 ACTIVITY 2: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Indicate the function for each major structure in the female reproductive system listed below (see Section 16.2 in the textbook): Part Ovary Function Female gonads that produce eggs and the female sex hormones. A bout 3 cm by 1cm in size. Clitoris small erectile organ in females above urethral opening that has man y sensereceptors and functions in arousal and organsm. Vagina muscular tube with mucussecreting lining; receives penis during intercourse, andserves as a birth canal. opening of uterus from vagina (joins vagina at nearly right angles) Cervix Uterus thick-walled muscular organ, shaped like an upsidedown pear, when fetusdevelops. Normally about 5 cm wide. ACTIVITY 3: THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE View a short video at www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_wX285vrrU (also on Canvas under Lab 9) and answer the following: 1. What are the three main “players” in the female reproductive cycle? Pituitary gland, uterus and ovaries. 2. At the beginning of a new menstrual cycle, the nerve cells in the hypothalamus secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which then causes the pituitary to secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 3. FSH then travels to the ovary where it stimulates the formation and growth of the ovarian follicle. The follicle consists of an egg cell and other cells that secrete estrogen hormones and fluid . 4. As the follicle matures, the hypothalamus secretes more GnRH which stimulates the pituitary to secrete what hormone? Luteinizing hormone. When this hormone peaks midcycle, what happens? Ovulation 5. What does the hormone progesterone do? Brings changes in the lining of the uterus for Human Biology: Lab 9 9.3 possible pregnancy. 6. What happens to the uterus lining if the egg is not fertilized? Corpus luteum withers Human Biology: Lab 9 9.4 ACTIVITY 4: BREAST & TESTICULAR CANCER DETECTION There are many different types of cancers of the reproductive system. While some of these cannot be detected through self-examinations (ovarian, cervical and prostate, to name a few), others can. Self-examinations are recommended for the detection of breast and testicular cancer. This activity is designed for you to understand correct examination techniques for the breast and testicles. Important! It’s not enough to know how to do a self-examination on yourself. You could save your partner’s life by knowing what to look for in his or her anatomy. It is also important to share knowledge with family and friends – your understanding of the importance (and ease) of self-examinations might save a life here as well. Note: Below you have two options to learn about a breast examination: an animation or a video of actual demonstration by a person where parts of the body are unclothed (i.e., nudity is involved). Choose the option you are comfortable with. All links are also on Canvas under Lab 9. A. How to Perform a Breast Examination Watch one (or both if you prefer) of the following: • Animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=biTZmXL0Nu8 o Interesting note: this video, which was produced by Fortis Memorial Research Institute in India, states that breast cancer in India affects 1 in 22 women. In the U.S., the rate is much higher – about 1 in 8. • Live demonstration including nudity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8bvw3QSmEw Answer the following questions (the same information is found in both videos): 1. When is the best time of the month to do a breast examination? Once every month, after periods are over. Those who do not menstruating can do by assigning a specific day in a month. 2. What are some of the things one should look for visually (e.g. when standing in front of the mirror looking at the breasts)? Changes in breast, shape and puckering or dimpling of the skin, any changes in the nipple and nipple discharge 3. What are some of the things one should be feeling for? Any new changes, new lumps and anything that does not feel right 4. Why is it important to check the armpit as well as the breast? To check if there’s abnormal lamp that might remain tender or continue to grow and become more tender. Human Biology: Lab 9 9.5 B. Testicular Examination First watch a short video on why it is important to do a testicular examination: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfnJsDzepeo 1. Between 1973 – 1992, the occurrence of testicular cancer rose by how much? Rates increased by more than 50% 2. Why is self-examination so important for early detection of testicular cancer? Testicular cancer is a painless mess where you do not feel any sign or symptoms beside the mass so you are not have going to have any fever, achiness or tiredness. 3. Why is testicular cancer called a “young man’s cancer”? Most common between ages 15-40. They present themselves to the doctor quite late because they feel that they are immune from health issues. 4. What is the 5-year survival rate for testicular cancer if it is caught early? Curing rate for testicular cancer is extremely high; the survival rate is 99%. Majority of testicular cancer patients are cured which depends on when the medical specialists caught the cancer. This next video is optional but recommended. Dr. Oz talks about testicular examinations using dissected human testicles (that is, testicles taken from a cadaver with the scrotum removed). The reason why this video is important is that one can see the anatomy of the testicle, particularly the epididymis (the collection sack for sperm). The epididymis can feel like a lump, so it’s important to know where and what it is. If you wish to see this video, go to www.youtube.com/watch?v=soNIj6fEhfc There are no questions to answer here. Note: Below you have two options to learn about a testicular examination: an animation or a video of actual demonstration by a person where parts of the body are unclothed (i.e., nudity is involved). Choose the option you are comfortable with. Next, watch one (or both if you prefer) of the following: • Animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vf0SnbIcwBA • Live demonstration including nudity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDRtnf69eZI Answer the following questions (the same information is found in both videos): 5. True/false: It is normal for one testicle to be larger or hang lower than the other. True 6. Why should the testicular self-examination be done in the shower or bath? You might find a testicular self-exam is easier during or after a warm bath or shower. Heat relaxes the scrotum, making it easier for you to check for anything unusual. 7. What is one looking for in the testicular examination? Abnormal lumps or bumps. The lump does not have to be painful for it to be a concern. Human Biology: Lab 9 9.6 8. How often should the testicular examination be done? Monthly Human Biology: Lab 9 9.7 ACTIVITY 5: USING CONDOMS – OPTIONAL Condoms are essential in preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. A good brand of condoms, used properly, has a 97% effectiveness rate against pregnancy and a 98 to 99% effectiveness rate against HIV. (Incidentally, the condom is not as effective in protecting against genital warts/HPV – but there are other protections against this, as explained in Activity 7). Everyone – men and women – should know how to use a condom, whether you use a male condom, a female condom, and/or a dental dam. Note: If you responded to our survey and requested a condom, you will have received one in the Bio 21 packet. This is yours to examine. If you did not respond to the survey or if you indicated “do not send”, then no condom has been included in your Bio21 packet. There are no questions in this optional activity. We encourage you to become informed about the use of condoms by checking out the following information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (these links are also on Canvas under Lab 9): • Male condoms: https://www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/male-condomuse.html • Female condoms: https://www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/Female-condomuse.html • Dental dams (including making a dental dam from a condom): https://www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/Dental-dam-use.html Human Biology: Lab 9 9.5 MORE ACTIVITY 6: STDs/STIs ON THE INTERNET Go to http://www.cdc.gov/std (also on Canvas under Lab 9) to research STDs or STIs and answer the following (below and next page). Bacteria or virus? Chlamydia Bacteria Symptoms in men • • • Human Biology: Lab 9 A discharge from their penis; A burning sensation when urinating; Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common). Symptoms in women • • An abnormal vaginal discharge; A burning sensation when urinating. Curable or treatable? Give name(s) of drugs. Long term risks of disease. Yes, chlamydia can If you are a woman, be cured with the untreated chlamydia can right treatment. spread to your uterus and Persons with fallopian tubes (tubes that chlamydia should carry fertilized eggs from abstain from sexual the ovaries to the uterus). activity for 7 days This can cause pelvic after single dose inflammatory antibiotics or until disease (PID). PID often completion of a 7- has no symptoms, however day course of some women may have antibiotics, to abdominal and pelvic pain. prevent spreading Even if it doesn’t cause the infection to symptoms initially, PID can partners. It is cause permanent damage important to take all to your reproductive of the medication system. PID can lead to prescribed to cure long-term pelvic chlamydia. A single pain, inability to get dose pregnant, and potentially of azithromycin or deadly ectopic taking doxycycline t pregnancy (pregnancy wice daily for 7 to 14 outside the uterus). days are the most Men rarely have health common treatments problems linked to chlamydia. Infection sometimes spreads to the tube that carries sperm 9.6 from the testicles, causing pain and fever. Rarely, chlamydia can prevent a man from being able to have children. Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV – the virus that causes AIDS. Gonorrhea Bacteria Human Biology: Lab 9 • • • • • Discharge; Anal itching; Soreness; Bleeding; Painful bowel movements. • • • Painful or burning sensation when urinating; Increased vaginal discharge; Vaginal bleeding between periods. Gonorrhea can be Untreated gonorrhea can cured with the right cause serious and treatment. CDC permanent health problems recommends a in both women and men. single dose of 500 In women, untreated mg of intramuscular gonorrhea can cause pelvic ceftriaxone. inflammatory disease Alternative regimens (PID). Some of the are available when complications of PID are ceftriaxone cannot be used to treat • Formation of scar urogenital or rectal tissue that blocks gonorrhea. Although fallopian medication will stop tubesexternal icon; the infection, it will • Ectopic pregnancy not repair any (pregnancy outside permanent damage the wombexternal done by the icon); disease. Antimicrobi • Infertility (inability to al resistance in get pregnant); gonorrhea is of • Long-term increasing concern, pelvic/abdominal and successful pain. treatment of gonorrhea is In men, gonorrhea can becoming more cause a painful condition in 9.6 difficult. the tubes attached to the testicles. In rare cases, this may cause a man to be sterile, or prevent him from being able to father a child. Rarely, untreated gonorrhea can also spread to your blood or joints. This condition can be lifethreatening. Untreated gonorrhea may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV – the virus that causes AIDS. MORE Human Biology: Lab 9 9.6 Bacteria or virus? HIV/AIDs Virus Symptoms in men • • • • • • Erectile dysfunction Depression Fatigue Infertility Less hair growth on the body and face Breast tissue growth Symptoms in women • • • Human Biology: Lab 9 Curable or treatable? Give name(s) of drugs. HIV/AIDS is vaginal yeast treatable through the infections treatment other vaginal infections such as called antiretroviral bacterial vaginosis; therapy (ART). common sexually Taking HIV medicine as prescribed can transmitted diseases (STDs) make your viral load very low by reducing like gonorrhea, the amount of virus Chlamydia and in your blood and trichomoniasis; body fluids. HIV human medicine can make papillomavirus (HPV) infections your viral load so low that cause genital that a test can’t warts and can lead detect it (an to cervical cancer; undetectable viral pelvic inflammatory load). If your viral load stays disease (PID) undetectable, you infection of a have effectively no women’s risk of sexually reproductive transmitting HIV to organs and HIV-negative menstrual cycle changes, such as partners, even if you not having periods have other STDs. Long term risks of disease. • • • HIV will continue to harm your immune system. This will put you at higher risk for developing AIDS. Learn more about AIDS and opportunistic infections. This will put you at higher risk for transmitting HIV to your sexual and injection partners. 9.7 Herpes Virus • • • • itching in your genitals. pain in your genitals. flu-like symptoms, including body aches and fever. swollen lymph nodes in your groin area. • • • • • • • • Hepatitis B Virus • • • • • • • • Human Biology: Lab 9 fatigue dark urine joint and muscle pain loss of appetite fever abdominal discomfort weakness yellowing of the whites of the eyes (sclera) and skin (jaundice) • • • • • • • • Itching, tingling, or There is no cure for Genital herpes can lead burning feeling in herpes. Antiviral to complications, especially the vaginal or anal medications can, the first time you have it. area. however, prevent or The Flu-like symptoms, shorten outbreaks possible complications incl during the period of ude vaginal yeast infections including fever. time the person (“thrush”), bladder Swollen glands. takes the problems with trouble Pain in the legs, medication. In urinating, and – in rare buttocks, or addition, daily cases – vaginal area. suppressive therapy meningitis. Complications a A change in (i.e. daily use of re very rare in later vaginal discharge. antiviral medication) outbreaks. for herpes can Headache. Painful or difficult reduce the likelihood of transmission to urination. partners. A feeling of pressure in the area below the stomach. Two products have The longer a hepatitis Jaundice (yellowing of the been approved for B infection is left untreated, hepatitis B the more susceptible you skin and eyes) Dark-colored urine, prevention: hepatitis are to developing severe light-colored stools B immune globulin scarring of the liver (HBIG) for (cirrhosis) and liver cancer. Fatigue postexposure Abdominal pain prophylaxis and Loss of appetite hepatitis B vaccine Nausea (3,4). HBIG provides Diarrhea temporary (i.e., 3–6 Fever months) protection from HBV infection and is typically used as PEP as an 9.7 adjunct to hepatitis B vaccination (in previously unvaccinated persons) or in persons who have not responded to vaccination. HBIG is prepared from plasma known to contain high concentrations of anti-HBs. The recommended dose of HBIG is 0.06 mL/kg. Human Biology: Lab 9 No specific therapy is available for persons with acute hepatitis B; treatment is supportive. Persons with chronic HBV infection should be referred for evaluation to a provider experienced in the management of chronic HBV infection. Therapeutic agents cleared by FDA for treatment of chronic hepatitis B can achieve sustained suppression of HBV 9.7 replication and remission of liver disease Human Biology: Lab 9 9.7 1. All STDs can be prevented. You’ve all heard about “safe sex” (or more aptly, “safer sex”). List THREE ways safer sex can be practiced. a. Oral sex with a condom, a dental dam, or plastic wrap b. Vaginal sex with a male or female condom c. Anal sex with a male or female condom ACTIVITY 7: BIOLOGY OF YOU IN-DEPTH: HPV Vaccine on WebMD In 2005, the discovery and subsequent implementation of a vaccine to prevent HPV was heralded by the National Cancer Institute as a “major public health success story.” Go to www.WebMD.com and type in ‘HPV vaccine’. Scroll past the ads, and click on HPV/Genital Warts, then Overview (note: there are several pages under Overview). 1. While the HPV infection can go away on its own, some types of HPV can lead to cancer. What kinds of cancer have been linked to HPV? Cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, anus or penis cancer 2. Of the sexually transmitted strains of HPV, what two are particularly high risk and account for 70% of cervical cancers? HPV 16 and 18 3. Why doesn’t a condom fully protect someone from the virus? Because it spreads through skin-to-skin contact. 4. What three vaccines are available to prevent some strains of HPV? Cervarix, Gardasil, and Gardasil 9. 5. Go back to HPV/Genital Warts and click on “HPV in Men”. Why should boys and young men be vaccinated against HPV? Because they are at high risk of getting genital cancer that can lead to penis or anal cancer. 6. Finally, go back to HPV/Genital Warts and click on Symptoms & Tests and/or Treatment. How is HPV diagnosed? Through Pap test or pap smear. Human Biology: Lab 9 9.8 BIOLOGY 21 ON-LINE LAB 9: REPRODUCTION & STDS The reproductive system is vital to success of life on earth – if a species cannot reproduce itself, it will become extinct. This week, we first consider the anatomy of both the male and female reproductive systems, and then the hormonal mechanisms behind reproduct…
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