What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?

What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?

What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures? 150 150 Nyagu

Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay
Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay

PLS I WILL LIKE THE WRITER 1747 TO HANDEL THIS ASSINGNMENT. PLEASE FOLLOW THE RUBRICS. As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, before you can recommend potential pharmacotherapeutics to address a patient’s condition or disorder, you must understand the basic function and structure of the neuron and central nervous system. For this Assignment, you will review and apply your understanding of neuroanatomy by addressing a set of short answer prompts. To Prepare: Review the Learning Resources for this week in preparation to complete this Assignment. Reflect on the basic function and structure of the neuron in relation to the central nervous system. Reflect on the inter-connectedness between neurons and the central nervous system, including the pathway and distribution of electrical impulses. Reflect on how neurons communicate with each other and review the concept of neuroplasticity. Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay.

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GRADING RUBRICS 1)In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous sytem, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples. 2)Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions): a. What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures? b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction? c. What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control? 3)In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples. 4)The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific. 5)In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples. Learning Resources Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) Camprodon, J. A., & Roffman, J. L. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1–19). Elsevier.

Neuroanatomy and Physiology

The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system is made up of afferent and efferent neurons. The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. This paper is about the anatomy and physiology of these functional units.

The Neuron

The neurons produce and conduct electrical signals (messages) referred to as action potentials and they are made up of three parts – the cell body (soma), dendrites, and axon. The electrical impulse that is transmitted starts as a result of changes in the neuron’s membrane potential from a resting membrane potential of -70 mV. The pathway that the action potential travels is from the cell body via the axon to the axon terminals. The net result at the termination of the impulse is the release of a neurotransmitter by exocytosis into the synaptic junction to carry the message across this space to the dendrites of the next neuron (Barrett et al., 2019; Stanfield, 2013). An example is the efferent somatic motor neuron whose excitation produces an impulse ending in the release of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junction or cleft. Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay

Subcortical Structures, Learning, Memory, and Addiction

The major components that make up the subcortical structures are the hippocampus, the basal ganglia (corpus striatum with lenticular and caudate nuclei, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus), the limbic system (that includes the amygdala), the diencephalon, and the pituitary gland.
The subcortical components that play a role in learning, memory, and addiction are the hippocampus, the amygdala (which is a part of the limbic system), nucleus accumbens (a part of the basal ganglia), and the cingulate gyrus (also a part of the limbic system).
The two main neurotransmitters located in the nigrostriatal area of the brain and involved in controlling motor function are dopamine and substance P (Barrett et al., 2019).
Glial Cells

Glial cells make up 90% of the nervous system and have a structural and functional supportive role for neurons (which are the functional units of the nervous system). They are divided into microglia (which originate from macrophages and have an immune function such as the removal of redundant tissue from Parkinson disease) and macroglia. Macroglia are the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells. Oligodendrocytes have a role in the formation of myelin shealth in the central nervous system, while Schwann cells do the same in the peripheral nervous system (Barrett et al., 2019).

The Synapse

The synapse or synaptic cleft is a space between the axon terminals and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron. The communication between the two is chemical in nature and is mediated by neurotransmitters. These are released from intracellular vesicles by exocytosis from the axon terminals into the synaptic cleft (Barrett et al., 2019; Tortora & Derrickson, 2014; Stanfield, 2013). The direction of this communication is from the axon terminals to the dendrites or cell body of the next axon in line.Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay

Neuroplasticity

The concept of neuroplasticity refers to the exceptional ability of the brain to form new neural connections in response to injury or disruption in the structural integrity of the nervous system. For instance, when olfactory sensory neurons are destroyed there is establishment of new connections to restore olfaction. Neuroplasticity is the innate capability of the neurons to anatomically and physiologically compensate for the effects of injury and disease.

References

Barrett, K.E., Barman, S.M., Brooks, H.L., & Yuan, J. (Eds) (2019). Ganong’s review of medical physiology, 26th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.

Stanfield, C.L. (2013). Principles of human physiology, 5th ed. Pearson Education Inc.

Tortora, G.R. & Derrickson, B. (2014). Principles of anatomy and physiology, 14th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Neuroanatomy and Physiology Short Answers Assessment Essay