What are the implications of the research for clinical practice?

What are the implications of the research for clinical practice?

What are the implications of the research for clinical practice? 150 150 Nyagu

Obesity Keeper Study Discussion
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Obesity Keeper Study Discussion

Obesity Keeper Study Discussion

Obesity Keeper Study Discussion

Question Description
Discussion Over Hypertension due to Obesity…..

We will be reviewing a “keeper study” this week—evaluate an article by working through the following 7 questions

Again, keeper studies can be identified using handy Rapid Critical Appraisal checklists consisting of a set of simple but important questions. Below are sample questions developed for use with quantitative studies that are applicable to most appraisal situations (it’s important to note that qualitative evidence, if it’s relevant to the clinical question, should not be dismissed):

Why was the study done? Make sure the study is directly relevant to the clinical question.

What is the sample size? Size can and should vary according to the nature of the study. Since determining a valid minimum sample size in a single study can be difficult, taking into account multiple studies is beneficial.

The answer to this question alone should not remove a study from the appraisal process.

Are instruments of the variables in the study clearly defined and reliable? Make sure the variables were consistently applied throughout the study and that they measured what the researchers said they were going to measure.

How was the data analyzed?

Make sure that any statistics are relevant to the clinical question.

Were there any unusual events during the study? If the sample size changed, for example, determine whether that has ramifications if you wish to replicate the study.

How do the results fit in with previous research in this area? Make sure the study builds on other studies of a similar nature.

What are the implications of the research for clinical practice? Ask whether the study addresses a relevant and important clinical issue.

As you work on your capstone project proposal, you will want to share your progress with your peers and instructor and seek or provide guidance or share insights. By the due date assigned, go to the Discussion Area and post responses to the discussion question. All responses should be posted to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. It is important to support what you say with relevant citations in the APA format from both the course materials and outside resources. Include the South University online library in your research activities utilizing not only the nursing resource database, but also those pertaining to education, business, and human resources.

I have to add my PICOT question to the end of it. So here it is too.

PICOT Question

The PICOT question is, ‘does healthy lifestyle among individuals with high blood pressure lead to better management of the condition as compared to hypertension patients who seek medical treatment in a recovery period of eight months?’In this context, a healthy lifestyle means regular exercise and healthy food.

WEEK 5 NOTES I tried to upload them and it told me it was an invalid upload, Hmmm weird

Critical Appraisal

Questions to ask when evaluating a study:

1. Is this relevant to my patient or the problem?

Once you begin reading an article, you may find that the study population isn’t representative of the patient or problem you are treating or addressing. Research abstracts alone do not always make this apparent.
You may also find that while a study population or problem matches that of your patient, the study did not focus on an aspect of the problem you are interested in. E.g. You may find that a study looks at oral administration of an antibiotic before a surgical procedure, but doesn’t address the timing of the administration of the antibiotic.
The question of relevance is primary when assessing an article–if the article or report is not relevant, then the validity of the article won’t matter (Slawson & Shaughnessy, 1997).
Validity is the extent to which the methods and conclusions of a study accurately reflect or represent the truth. Validity in a research article or report has two parts: 1) Internal validity–i.e. do the results of the study mean what they are presented as meaning? e.g. were bias and/or confounding factors present?; and 2) External validity–i.e. are the study results generalizable? e.g. can the results be applied outside of the study setting and population(s)?
Study reliability refers to the “repeatability” of the study—that is, if the study were repeated under the same circumstances, would the results be the same?
2. Is the evidence in this study valid?

3. Is the study reliable?

Instrument reliability refers to the consistency of the instruments—will they yield the same results under the same conditions?

Rapid Critical Appraisal (RCA)

This first step is actually composed of two parts. The first enables clinicians to identify, from the enormous quantities of published research, those studies that are most relevant to the specific clinical question at hand and are valid. These studies are called “keeper studies.”

The second part involves the appraisal of the keeper studies.

Keeper studies can be identified using handy Rapid

Critical Appraisal checklists consisting of a set of simple but important questions. Below are sample questions developed for use with quantitative studies that are applicable to most appraisal situations (it’s important to note that qualitative evidence, if it’s relevant to the clinical question, should not be dismissed):

1. Why was the study done? Make sure the study is directly relevant to the clinical question.

2. What is the sample size? Size can and should vary according to the nature of the study. Since determining a valid minimum sample size in a single study can be difficult, taking into account multiple studies is beneficial.

The answer to this question alone should not remove a study from the appraisal process.

3. Are instruments of the variables in the study clearly defined and reliable? Make sure the variables were consistently applied throughout the study and that they measured what the researchers said they were going to measure.

4. How was the data analyzed?

Make sure that any statistics are relevant to the clinical question.

5. Were there any unusual events during the study? If the sample size changed, for example, determine whether that has ramifications if you wish to replicate the study.

6. How do the results fit in with previous research in this area? Make sure the study builds on other studies of a similar nature.

7. What are the implications of the research for clinical practice? Ask whether the study addresses a relevant and important clinical issue.

Valid and Reliable

Once keeper studies have been identified, it’s time to analyze them using a similar set of RCA questions, but ones that enable clinicians to further hone a study’s applicability to a clinical situation. Below are sample questions—along with sample related sub-questions—taken from the appraisal of study presenting the results of a randomized clinical trial for a drug*:

1. Are the study’s findings valid? Specific sub-questions asking about the participants of the study, the demographic make-up of the control group, and other variables provide further guidance.

Obesity Keeper Study Discussion

2. What are the results of the study and are they important? Readers should also pay attention to the size and significance of the healthcare intervention or treatment proposed, the specific statistics relevant to the clinical situation, and more.

3. Will the results actually help clinicians care for patients? Clinicians should determine whether the results are applicable to his or her set of patients, identify the risks and benefits of the specific treatment recommended, and analyze whether the treatment conforms to patient preferences is feasible within the institution.

*It is also important to recognize that the funding organization behind the study is a factor in determining the reliability of a study.

Clinicians may question studies funded by private entities such as pharmaceutical companies, which may have profit-driven reasons for ensuring positive outcomes.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.