L.N. is a 49-year-old white woman with a history of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and migraine headaches. The patient was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 9 years ago when she presented with mild polyuria and polydipsia. L.N. is 5’4″ and has always been on the large side, with her weight fluctuating between 165 and 185 lb. Initial treatment for her diabetes consisted of an oral sulfonylurea with the rapid addition of metformin. Her diabetes has been under fair control with a most recent hemoglobin A1c of 7.4%.
Hypertension was diagnosed 5 years ago when blood pressure (BP) measured in the office was noted to be consistently elevated in the range of 160/90 mmHg on three occasions. L.N. was initially treated with Lisinopril, starting at 10 mg daily and increasing to 20 mg daily, yet her BP control has fluctuated. One year ago, microalbuminuria was detected on an annual urine screen, with 1,943 mg/dl of micro-albumin identified on a spot urine sample. L.N. comes into the office today for her usual follow-up visit for diabetes and HTN.
Subjective data reveals that she is experiencing increased exertional SOB. She expresses concern because when this happens it takes her awhile to get her breath back to normal. Denies any pain or dizziness with these episodes.
Physical examination reveals an obese woman with a BP of 154/86 mmHg and a pulse of 78 bpm. Otherwise exam is unremarkable.
CC: “I am more short of breath when walking up stairs than I used to be”.
1. What are the effects of controlling BP in people with diabetes?
2. What is the target BP for patients with diabetes and hypertension?
3. Which antihypertensive agents are recommended for patients with diabetes?
4 What testing does this woman need ordered due to her change in status both SOB and BP?
5. What is the significance of microalbuminuria in this woman? How does this affect her cardiovascular risk?