What are the accessory organs of the digestive system that are not actually part of the GI tract?

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system that are not actually part of the GI tract?

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system that are not actually part of the GI tract? 150 150 Nyagu

Digestive System Analysis Questions
Digestive System Analysis Questions TYPE YOUR ANSWERS IN A DIFFERENT COLOR

Station 1

1.What are the accessory organs of the digestive system that are not actually part of the GI tract?

Accessory organs include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

2.What are the three parts of the small intestine?

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The three parts of the small intestine duodenum, ileum, and jejunum.

3.What valve separates the esophagus and stomach? The stomach and the duodenum?

The gastroesophageal valve separates the stomach and the esophagus and the pyloric sphincter at pylorus separates the stomach and the duodenum.

4.What valve separates the ileum from the colon?

The ileocecal valve separates the ileum from the colon.

5.What are the three parts of the large intestine or colon?

The three parts are the ascending colon, descending colon, and transverse colon.

6.What are the functions of the liver and gallbladder?

The liver produces bile, filters debris and nutrients from the blood, and detoxifies metabolic waste and drugs. The gallbladder stores and concentrates the bile that the liver produces. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

7.What is the function of the pancreas?

The pancreases secretes several different types of enzymes that help to break down food.

Station 2

8.What is the longest part of the GI tract?

The small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract.

9.Why do you think the small intestine is so much longer than the large intestine?

The small intestine is longer because it needs to absorb all the essential nutrients from the food whereas the large intestine only absorbs excess water and leftover ions.

10.Did the length of any portions of the GI tract surprise you? Why or why not?

The length did not surprise me because I have learned before that the intestines are some of the longest organs in the body because they need a lot of surface area to absorb all the nutrients.

Station 3

11.What would pass through the lumen of the esophagus?

A bolus (clump of swallowed food) would pass through the lumen.

12.What is the importance of the gastric lumen and gastric pits in the stomach?

The gastric pits are small pores in the stomach that secrete digestive enzymes and protective mucus into the gastric lumen. They are important for digesting food both mechanically and chemically. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

13.What is the importance of the villus in the small intestine?

Villi allows the transfer of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. They have lots of surface area in order to absorb large amounts of food.

14.What is the importance of the goblet cells in the large intestine?

Goblet cells are important because they secrete mucus into the large intestine which lubricates and allows for easy transport through the large intestine.

Station 4

15.What was the difference between the speed of water through the esophagus standing and laying down?

It was almost twice as fast standing up as it was laying down.

16.According to this experiment, was the speed of water through the esophagus affected by gravity?

The speed of water through the esophagus is greatly affected by gravity.

17.What valve were you listening to in this experiment?

We were listening to the upper esophageal sphincter at the top and the lower esophageal sphincter at the bottom where it attaches to the stomach.

18.What was the purpose of performing multiple trials?

We performed multiple trials in order to reduce errors due to different factors. We might have had different amounts of water in each trial so that would vary the speed. THe person testing might have some errors recording the exact time so multiple trials are also important to reduce these errors.

Station 5

19.What were the common causes & risk factors found between the majority of the digestive disorders?

One common cause was the ingestion of unnatural substances such as excess NSAIDs and cigarette smoke. Hereditary factors also play a role in determining a person’s risk of developing a digestive disorder.

20.What were the common symptoms found between the majority of the digestive disorders?

The most common symptom is stomach pain. Chest pain and heartburn is also common. People with digestive disorders also often experience diarrhea and other unusual bowel activity that may be painful or burdensome. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

Station 6

21.What is the purpose of the fecal occult blood test?

The purpose of the fecal occult blood test is to test for the presence of blood in the GI tract which can signify a digestive disease.

22.Why is it important to perform multiple fecal occult blood tests over a period of time?

You need to test it over a period of time because chronic bleeding is a much bigger issue than a one time occurrence of bleeding. The doctor will test over several months to see if the bleeding is chronic and not the result of a single incident.

23.What digestive disorders can the fecal occult blood test indicate?

Blood in the stool can indicate ulcers, polyps, cancer, anal fissures, infection, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, colitis, or esophageal bleeding.

24.Why was it important not to touch the test area with our fingers prior to performing the experiment?

We do not want to touch the test area before the test because we can contaminate the test by introducing foreign bacteria that is on our hands. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

25.CONCLUSION: In 1-2 paragraphs summarize the procedure and results of this lab.

We started this lab by labeling parts of the digestive system. This included the general macroanatomy of the GI tract, teeth, structures of the stomach, and the functions of main digestive organs. From labeling we learned about all the essential organs that are involved in digestion. Digestion is a complex process with many components involved. We also learned about the enzymes that break down certain foods and the path certain foods take as they are broken down from to the chemical components Digestive System Analysis Questions. Then we took a string and made a scale model of the digestive tract. We learned that that the intestine make up a huge portion of the digestive tract. This is because they need a large surface area in order to absorbs all the nutrients and water from the food that passes. Specifically, the small intestine is the longest portion of the GI tract because it has the most to absorb. Next we analyzed microscopic pictures of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. We drew and labeled a diagram of each one which taught us the cells that are involved in each organ. They all have several different cell types which perform specific functions within each organ.

The next lab test we did tested how much of a factor gravity plays in swallowing. We did trials where we recorded the time it takes to swallow while standing and while laying down. Our results showed that gravity does play a role in swallowing because when we were standing up it took less time to swallow. However, because your esophagus is very good at performing peristalsis, you are able to swallow eventually both sitting and standing. The next lab station was reading papers about digestive diseases and writing down general information about it. Most of the diseases involve growths or inflammation in the digestive system. This usually leads to stomach pain and diarrhea. Treatment usually includes diet and lifestyles changes, medication, and sometimes surgery. The last lab station was the fecal occult blood test. We tested several different stool samples for the presence of blood in the stool. It is important to test for blood because that is a symptoms of many different digestive disorders. The results of the test showed us that one of the stool samples was positive for blood while the other one was negative.

Review Questions

1.What is the function of the digestive system?

The function of the digestive system is to break down nutrients from the food we eat so that the body can use the nutrients.

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2.What is the one-way track through the digestive system called?

The digestive tract is called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

3.What are the organs of the GI tract?

Organs of the GI tract include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

4.What is the function of the mucosa tissue layer?

The mucosa tissue layer is responsible for creating digestive juices such as enzymes that break down food.

5.What is the function of the muscularis mucosae tissue layer?

The muscularis mucosae tissue layer is smooth muscle that assists the movement of food through contraction and relaxation.

6.What is peristalsis?

Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the muscularis mucosae that moves food along the GI tract. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

7.Summarize each step in the digestion process.

Step one the mouth produces amylase in saliva that breaks down starch and carbohydrates. Then the food passes through the esophagus to the stomach. Then the stomach produces acid and pepsin to break down proteins. Then the muscles in the stomach churn the food and when it is done the food is pushed through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum. Then the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder release enzymes into the small intestine. The nutrients in the food are absorbed in villi as the food goes down the small intestine. Leftovers that were not absorbed are pushed into the colon through the ileocecal valve. Water is removed by the colon and leftover contents are expelled through the rectum and anus. Digestive System Analysis Questions.

8.Where does carbohydrate/starch digestion occur?

In the mouth with the amylase containing saliva.

9.Where does protein digestion occur?

In the stomach by acid and pepsin.

10.Where does lipid digestion occur?

In the duodenum where lipase from the pancreas breaks down lipids.

11.Where does absorption of nutrients occur?

Nutrients absorption occurs in the small intestine through villi.

12.How much was spent on healthcare costs for digestive disorders in the U.S. in 2004?

Digestive disorders cost the US around $141.8 billion dollars in 2004.

13.Which digestive disorder was the most prevalent in 2004?

The most prevalent digestive disorder in 2004 was constipation.

14.Which digestive disorder caused the most healthcare & hospital visits in the U.S. in 2004?

Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) caused the most hospital visits in 2004.

15.Which digestive disorder had the highest mortality rate in the U.S. in 2004?

Liver disease had the highest mortality rate in 2004.

16.Which digestive disorder had the lowest mortality rate in the U.S. in 2004?

Hemorrhoids caused the least deaths in 2004.

17.What is the difference between a colonoscopy and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy?

They are both the process of viewing the GI tract through an endoscope but colonoscopy is through the rectum to view the colon and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy is through the mouth to view the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Digestive System Analysis Questions

18.What is an upper and lower GI series?

Upper and lower GI series use contrast dye such as barium to create a radiographic image of the GI tract. It is used to show blockages, strictures, inflammation, ulcers, growths, and bleeding. Digestive System Analysis Questions.