Unit 3-2 Response Behavior
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 350 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom.
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)/ Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) assumes that intention is the most critical determinant of human behavior (Hayden, 2019). An example of using this theory is an individual’s intention to quit or continue smoking.
According to these models, behavioral intention is influenced by a person’s attitude toward performing a behavior and beliefs about whether individuals who are essential to the person approve or disapprove of the behavior (subjective norm). The TPB and TRA assume all other factors (e.g., culture, the environment) operate through the models’ constructs and do not independently explain the likelihood that a person will behave a certain way. These theories provide helpful information for predicting health behaviors and planning and implementing health promotion and disease prevention programs.
1. A person’s attitude regarding using and quitting is associated with certain beliefs. A person will continue to smoke if they believe that smoking decreases the stress; on the other hand, a person will quit smoking if they think that smoking is bad for health, causes bad breath, and is not good for the baby (in pregnant women).
An example is a study of using waterpipe smoking, students who believed waterpipe smoking would allow them to have a “good time with friends” (B=.263, p<.001) and would “taste pleasant” (B=.287, p<.001) were more likely to have intentions to smoke in the future. On the other hand, beliefs that waterpipe smoking would “harm their health” (B= âˆ’.049, p=.398) and would “cost a lot of money” (B= âˆ’.060, p=.180) were negatively correlated with smoking intentions but is not statistically significant (Noonan D, 2012)
2. Subjective norm is pleasing others who are essential in one’s life, and this can be a reason, such that if a person is with a crowd that smokes, they will continue to smoke and the other way, they would quit smoking if people around them do not smoke.
In the same study (Noonan D, 2012), students who believed that their friends (B=.174, p<=.027) and significant others (B=.156, p=.042) would approve of their smoking were more likely to have intentions to smoke in the future.
3. The perceived behavioral control is the belief that one can stop smoking. It is the belief that one has, and can exercise, control over performing the behavior. Such events will impact making tobacco use or cessation difficult or easy.
Theory of Planned Behavior is TRA with additional of the construct behavioral control.
An example is a study by Armitage et al. using the Transtheoretical Model to evaluate the brief intervention in reducing smoking on smokers employed in a company in England. The subjects were grouped into experimental, active control, and passive control groups. One of the outcomes is to identify if perceived control would be a factor in the implementation intention. The study found that perceived control of participants in the experimental condition significantly increased between baseline and follow-up with increased quitting, intention, and significantly reduced nicotine dependence compared with the passive control condition (Armitage CJ, 2008)
- Armitage CJ, A. M. (2008). How Useful Are the Stages of Change for Targeting Interventions? Randomized Test of a Brief Intervention to Reduce Smoking. Health Psychology, 789-798.
- Hayden, J. (2019). Introduction to Health Behavior Theory Third Edition. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
- Noonan D, K. P. (2012). Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students. Journal of Addiction Nursing, 123-128.
Psychologists have demonstrated that by knowing a person’s feelings and attitudes, they can predict that person’s behavior. The theory of reasoned actions and planned behavior is a prediction model that states the best predictor of people’s behavior in any given situation is their intentions. The theory was founded in 1975 by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen to advance the information integration theory. Unsurprisingly, whether or not people intend to do something, their intentions are the best predictor of whether or not they will accomplish it. The intention to act is influenced by a person’s attitude toward; feelings or judgments of the behavior, the attitudes of key people in the person’s life, and the resulting perceived social pressures, which the theories identify as subjective norms (Nisson & Earl, 2020).
Normally individuals intend to engage in activities that make them feel good or popular with others, and they do not intend to engage in behaviors that make them feel bad or that are unpopular with others. People are more likely to carry out their intentions and engage in the action once they have decided to behave in a certain way. The theories are extensively applied in health promotion to determine the likelihood of individuals getting involved in behaviors that positively or negatively affect their health and design the best intervention (LaCaille, 2020). Tobacco use is among the public health concerns where the theory of reasoned action is extensively applied. An individual is likely to smoke or quit smoking based on the attitudes he/she holds towards tobacco use; this includes perceived benefits or risks, subjective norms which involves approval or disapproval of the smoking behavior by those surrounding them, and the perceived control which relates to the beliefs about their ability to control tobacco use. Some of the strategies developed to form the theory to deal with tobacco users include discussing the positives and negative impacts of tobacco use and explaining inaccurate expectancies, determining whether the user’s friend and family support the behavior, and drawing the user’s attention to social pressure to quit smoking (Katz et al., 2019).
- Katz, S. J., Erkinnen, M., Lindgren, B., & Hatsukami, D. (2019). Beliefs about E-cigarettes: A Focus Group Study with college students. American journal of health behavior, 43(1), 76-87. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/png/ajhb/2019/00000043/00000001/art00007
- LaCaille, L. (2020). Theory of reasoned action. Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine, 2231-2234. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-030-39903-0_1619
- Nisson, C., & Earl, A. (2020). The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Health Psychology, 755-761. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119057840.ch129