Theoretical Foundation for Research

Theoretical Foundation for Research

Theoretical Foundation for Research 150 150 Peter

Major Assignment Part 3: Theoretical Foundation for Research (Major Assessment)

You are encouraged to begin the Assignment in Week 9, to complete by Day 7 of Week 10.

Major Assignment Part 3: Theoretical Foundation for Research (Major Assessment)
Drawing on quantitative and qualitative research designs continue developing your Major Assignment paper.

  • Briefly explain your phenomenon of interest.

Childhood obesity and the effects of decreased physical education in elementary schools has on it.

  • Explain related concepts (definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences).
  • Explain conceptual relationships between and among concepts.
  • Explain assumptions embedded in your research.
  • Explain how an existing framework or theory could inform your work, including how the framework/theory originated and what modifications you may need to make for it to be useful for your research.
  • Identify research questions or hypotheses and explain how they align with other elements.
  • Explain your research design, including sampling, and your rationale for choosing this design.

The Part 3 Assignment Rubric:
Demonstrate and, when necessary, explain refinements made throughout your paper based on Instructor feedback to the Part 2 (Week 6) Assignment.
Briefly explain your phenomenon of interest.

  • Explain related concepts (definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences).
  • Explain conceptual relationships between and among those concepts.
  • Explain assumptions embedded in your research.
  • Explain how an existing framework or theory could inform your work, including how the framework/theory originated and what modifications you may need to make for it to be useful for your research.
  • Identify research question(s) or hypotheses and explain how they align with other elements.
  • Explain your research design, including sampling, and your rationale for choosing this design.
    Resources Required a minimum of 4 of the below resources are REQUIRED

Chesterton, L., Tetley, J., Cox, N., & Jack, K. (2021). A hermeneutical study of professional accountability in nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30, 188–199. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15539

Zadvinskis, I. M., Chipps, E., & Yen, P.-Y. (2014). Exploring nurses’ confirmed expectations regarding health IT: A phenomenological study. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 83(2), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2013.11.001

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2021). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.
• Chapter 4, “Introduction to Qualitative Research” (pp. 75–98)
• Chapter 12, “Qualitative Research Methods” (pp. 314–353)
• Chapter 5, “Research Problem and Purpose” (Examples of Research Topics, Problems, and Purposes for Different Types of Research: Qualitative Research; Table 5.2: Grounded Theory Research, Ethnography Research, Exploratory-Descriptive Qualitative Research, pp. 119–122)

Carr, K., & Weir, P. L. (2017). A qualitative description of successful aging through different decades of older adulthood. Aging and Mental Health, 21(12), 1317–1325. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1226764

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Five qualitative approaches to inquiry. In J. W. Creswell, & C. N. Poth, Qualitative inquiry and research design (4th ed., pp. 65–110). SAGE. [PDF]
Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches by Creswell, J.W. & Poth C.N. Copyright 2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center. Licensed in 2021.

Cutler, N. A., Halcomb, E., & Sim, J. (2021). Using naturalistic inquiry to inform qualitative description. Nurse Researcher, 29(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.2021.e1788

Sullivan, R. L., & Stadtlander, L. (2020). The lived experiences of low-income mothers raising children with autism. Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Science, 14(1), 195–210. https://doi.org/10.5590/JSBHS.2020.14.1.14

Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2019). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (6th ed.). Pearson.
• Part 2, “Derivation Strategies” (pp. 75–76)
• Chapter 4, “Concept Derivation” (pp. 77–87)
• Part 3, “Synthesis Strategies” (pp. 111–112)
• Chapter 7, “Concept Synthesis” (pp. 113–126)
• Chapter 13, “Assessing the Credibility and Scope of Nursing Knowledge Development: Concepts, Statements, and Theories” (pp. 231–250)

Sample Paper

Childhood Obesity and Decreased Physical education in Elementary Schools

Childhood obesity is a critical healthcare concern for children and teenagers. In the US, the prevalence, 14.4 million individuals between two and nineteen years were obese, representing 19.3% of their population (CDC, 2021a). Childhood obesity poses a major risk to the physical and psychological health of the affected individuals, including heart diseases, respiratory problems, musculoskeletal pain, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Hence, healthcare practitioners must explore the phenomenon and develop practical solutions.

Concepts

Definition

Childhood obesity is defined using the body mass index. However, unlike in adults, where preset values indicate a person’s weight status, childhood obesity is relative. Children whose weight is in the 95th percentile or higher among their agemates are considered obese (CDC, 2021b). While this definition is not ideal, it caters to geographical and cultural variations that impact child growth.

Attributes

Children cannot understand the importance of being physically active. Additionally, many elementary schools do not meet the established guidelines for physical education. Thus, these attributes leave the children vulnerable to becoming obese.

Antecedents

The main preceding issues are lack of physical education facilities, inadequate faculty, and general apathy towards physical education in elementary schools (Mullins et al., 2019). Some learning institutions, especially those in low-income communities, lack funds to acquire physical education equipment. They also do not have physical education-competent educators among their faculty. Hence, the children do not receive sufficient guidance and motivation to be physically active. Finally, some schools replace physical education with other extracurricular activities. Unfortunately, these replacements fail to engage the students adequately in physical activities.

Consequences

Childhood obesity causes a decline in physical and mental health. The lack of sufficient physical education also establishes a poor health culture where even adults become physically dormant, further compounding their health needs (Kinge & Morris, 207). Thus, childhood obesity elevates the burden that a community imposes on its healthcare infrastructure, resulting in a systemic decline in care quality and health-related quality of life.

Relationship between Concepts

The more children remain inactive and unhealthy, the higher their average weight becomes. Hence, the definition of childhood obesity changes over time. For instance, at one point, the 95th percentile BMI for twelve-year-old boys could be 22.0. Over the years, the lack of health promotion efforts could push the 95th percentile BMI increases to 23.5. This declining community health status, arising from the antecedents and failure to address the attributes, further deteriorates elementary school-goers’ physical education patterns.

Assumptions

Addressing childhood obesity necessitates two key assumptions:

  1. Children rely on their teachers and parents to guide their physical education. Therefore, the intervention should seek to establish ways that adults can create an enabling environment for children to receive adequate physical activity.
  2. Children in established sporting programs are exempt from investigation. Their motivations for physical activity and routines are different, and their data could skew the findings.

Theoretical Foundation

The social cognitive theory (SCT) provides a solid foundation for researching the phenomenon. Albert Bandura developed it in the 1960s as the social learning theory. However, the underlying purpose was the same: to explain how social factors and the environment (internal and external) influence behavior and behavioral change (Boston University School of Public Health, 2019). The SCT has four key components: self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, goal setting, and socio-structural factors (Butts & Rich, 2022). Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s conviction that change is attainable. Meanwhile, outcome expectancy describes the expectations that people believe their actions or inaction will yield. Goals are the primary objectives that people establish, while socio-structural factors are the specific features that a person seeks to alter. The SCT has featured in various research interventions exploring childhood obesity. For instance, Reilly et al. (2018) used it in creating a parent-based program to encourage activity and dietary, behavioral change. Their theoretical application is appropriate since it involves modifying adults’ perceptions to influence children’s health behavior. The only modification would be including other categories of adults, including teachers, school administrators, and community health educators.

Research Questions

The proposed study will determine how decreased physical education affects childhood obesity. The specific research questions are:

  • Does physical education impact children’s perception of exercise outside the school setup?
  • How does a school faculty’s aggregate physical education competency impact physical education prevalence at the institution?
  • How can teachers, parents, and other related adults improve physical education levels in schools?

The three queries will provide a comprehensive picture of the challenges impeding physical education implementation, how to improve it, and how to enable the change to reduce childhood obesity prevalence.

Research Design

The study will have a descriptive qualitative design. The researcher will investigate the phenomenon among a culturally diverse population, allowing varying responses based on literacy, cultural preferences, income levels, and role in the education fraternity. Meanwhile, the sampling method will be purposive to ensure enough respondents for each category. The research design is preferred since it is cost and time-effective (Bhardwaj, 2019) and allows for diverse responses.

 

References

Bhardwaj, P. (2019). Types of Sampling in Research. Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences, 5(3), 157-163. https://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2019/5/3/157/273754

Boston University School of Public Health. (2019, Sep. 9). The Social Cognitive Theory. https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/sb/behavioralchangetheories/behavioralchangetheories5.html#headingtaglink_1

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2022). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2021a, Apr. 5). Childhood Obesity Facts. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2021b, Dec. 3). Defining Childhood Weight Status. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/defining.html

Kinge, J. M., & Morris, S. (2017). The Impact of Childhood Obesity on Health and Health Service Use. Health Services Research, 53(3), 1621-1643. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12708

Mullins, N. M., Michaliszyn, S. F., Kelly-Miller, N., & Groli, L. (2019). Elementary school classroom physical activity breaks: student, teacher, and facilitator perspectives. Advantages in Physiology Education, 43(2), 140-148. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00002.2019

Reilly, K. C., Tucker, P. Irwin, J. D., Johnson, A. M., Pearson. E. S., Bock, D. E., & Burke, S. M. (2018). CHAMP Families: Description and Theoretical Foundations of a Pediatric Overweight and Obesity Intervention Targeting Parents—A Single-Centre Non-Randomized Feasibility Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 2858-2880. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15122858