Smoking Cessation in the United States

Smoking Cessation in the United States

Smoking Cessation in the United States 150 150 Peter

Smoking Cessation in the United States

Throughout the course, you have been completing discussion boards, learning activities, and assignments with the intention of utilizing those tools and knowledge to culminate a Final Project where you propose a health intervention, project, or program for your chosen health behavior.

At this point, you have chosen a health theory (Unit 2), conducted a review of the recent literature and created an annotated bibliography (Unit 2), created goals and objectives for your program (Unit 4), and reflected and revised those goals to be culturally sensitive (Unit 6). Now it is time to synthesize that information and create a 5–7-page report (excluding title page, reference pages, and appendices) with your proposed intervention. Although you completed aspects of this project in other units, for this unit, you will imagine that this report is for your supervisor. To this end, your report should be comprehensive and formatted as a professional deliverable. You may borrow content from previous assignments, but attempt to substantively revise and synthesize that information.

Sample Paper

Smoking Cessation in the United States


Smoking in the United States has been recognized as one of the leading risks in the world’s disease struggles. Smoking causes more than seven million deaths and millions of disabilities. There are more than thirty-four million smokers in the USA. More than sixteen million Americans are living with smoking-related diseases. According to scholarly studies, smoking has shown that young smokers can reduce their life expectancy by more than ten years. Health behaviour theories have been used to control smoking, and also it is a central intervention. The transtheoretical model is one of the health behaviour theories that has been used consistently. The transtheoretical model shows the level of stages that an individual moves. According to the Transtheoretical model, there are six stages of unique activities. The TTM has been used to show the behaviour of tobacco users and understand how different intervention programs can affect behavioral change among smokers. The paper addresses various concerns that gear towards smoking cessation, which gears towards meeting the goals and objectives of the intervention.


The overall goals aim at the reduction of people taking cigarettes in the region and at the same time incorporating Medicaid for the treatment of the condition. Additionally, it is of great importance to ban smoking in restaurants and other public regions to ensure that other individuals have been protected from the effect of smoking.


The core objective is to ensure reduced smoking and thus promote better healthcare. The reduction is estimated to reduce by 5% within five years. Therefore, tax incentives come in handy to ensure that cigarette costs go up by 15% to deter smokers from the norm. On the other hand, the increase in Medicaid adds to the objective and ensures that the reduction in many smokers has been identified and lowered to the minimum. Therefore, to push for these initiatives, there has been the incorporation of regulations and national programs which aim at cutting the consumption of the substance in the next decade. Similarly, it is to protect society from passive smoking and at the same time protect the unborn from the effects of smoking. Finally, banning each state burns from smoking in restaurants and other public areas ensures better approaches in meeting the core objective in reducing smoking and the effects that come along with it.

Literature review

According to Hsu et al. (2020), the aim is to examine smokers’ behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge towards different smoking prevention interventions and also seek to introduce high-quality smoking cessation services. Additionally, research conducted by WHO has shown at least ten people die due to disease caused by smoking behaviour, around six million deaths in a minute. I agree with the author that smoking cessation and patient education might help address the issue of health uncertainties. According to Hsu et al. (2020), smoking harm among addicted smokers was adverse. TTM research also achieved intentional efforts to quit tobacco use. The study also showed that outpatients at the contemplation stage accounted for more than 68 percent, those at the contemplation stage were ten percent, the preparation stage got five percent, those at the action stage accounted for seven percent, and that maintenance stage accounted for 8 percent. TTM research related smoking harm understanding among outpatients to deliberate effort to quit smoking.

According to the CDC (2021) article, Tobacco use prevention of addicts was coupled with the conscious intention to stop substance abuse. The article depicts various approaches in which the adults have been affected by the issues and gives directions to control the consumption. On the other hand, the more positive they become toward smoking avoidance, the better their understanding of tobacco smoking habits, the more hopeful their attitude toward halting tobacco use. The study found tobacco use harm knowledge and viewpoint toward smoking halting to be significant predictors. Health stakeholders should develop an elaborate education campaign to provide education and models towards increasing smoking harm awareness. The education team should consist of doctors, nurses, chemists, and teachers in educational institutions.

There are a few limitations to this research as it didn’t study these habits over time, and hence some future suggestions have been made: a lengthy study to explore changes in behavior for those who have quit tobacco use (CDC, 2020). Health professionals should expand the research to different demographics. Family members of those who participated should be involved. Future research should include other types of smoking tools like e-cigarettes and organ testing of experienced smokers to develop a comprehensive study.

Rahimi states that the core business is to evaluate effectively the transtheoretical model is successful in helping the avoidance of passive smoking in pregnant women and women with young children. Additionally, pregnant women exposed to passive smoking are at risk of having premature deaths of their babies; there is also the risk of underweight babies. Passive smoking also causes babies to be born before the due date and causes adverse effects after birth. Passive smoking among pregnant women has been associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk. Other risks associated with this are cleft lips and lip deformity. The transtheoretical model is suitable for designing prevention measures for passive smoking for pregnant women. The model improves knowledge, behaviors, self-care among this group. It’s effective in helping pregnant women to avoid passive smoking.

Passive smoking among young mothers causes detrimental effects on the healthy growth of their infants. Some of the risks of passive smoking by these young mothers include ear diseases, breathing problems, and asthmatic attacks. These young mothers are breastfeeding, so passive smoking affects the volume of milk produced. Passive smoking also passes the infant harmful chemicals such as lead, ammonia, benzene, nicotine, and hydrogen cyanide. As children develop and are vulnerable to passive smoke, they become determinants of organ problems and slow growth.

According to Hu et al. (2019), the effectiveness of the TTM theory is geared towards protecting the vulnerable population, in this case, the children and pregnant women. In a nutshell, the bone of contention in the article is to strengthen different areas in which smoking habits can be addressed and, at the same time, directed to the target group. Some of these interventions also succeed in reducing passive smoking among children. The intervention includes clinical advice by nurses to mothers who are visiting, having a school-based curriculum approach, also advice to mothers of unwell children (Siewchaisakul et al., 2020). Transtheoretical model program concentrated on stages that help gather information about preventing tobacco smoking among non-using pregnant ladies and lactating mothers. The TTM research also gave an interceding plan made in protecting those not exposed to smoking. A significant percentage of lactating mothers progressed in the stages of change. Finally, the article weakness lies in the TTM model, which does not directly define the proposed intervention and thus affects the overall outcome of the target group.

Dai et al. (2019) precisely touch on issues of cigarette cessation, more so on adults in the United States. Smoking is a leading global disease burden by causing millions of death and millions of cases in causing disabilities. In the study, a TTM community-based screening program was accessed to measure the effects of smoking cessation. The tobacco quitting aids given by health officers proved to be effective in assisting those willing to leave. Residential programs with counselling and therapy have also proved to be successful. The advice from nurses and other health officers mainly helped in the contemplation and the preparation stage. Direct guidance from the health workers helped in helping in smoking cessation (Dai et al., 2019). The Markov first model proved to be better than the second-order model. Professional interventions have become more popular. There is also an elaborate measure to have support tools like the information system, which helps facilitate smoking cessation.

Brantley supplements the core idea of smoking cessation and states that the main goals are to reduce tobacco products in the United States and incorporate Medicaid cover for treatment. There are many costs involved due to the effects of smoking, like deaths and disabilities. Effects of tobacco use affect the government expenditure directly, and also, it affects the families directly, and reducing tobacco use will lessen the burden (Brantley et al., 2019). Another goal is to increase the coverage of Medicaid for smoking halting treatment. There is a lobby for expanded Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation treatment from fifteen states to all states. There should also be consistency in policies to be uniform across all states. Health insurance will reduce family burdens associated with the high costs of smoking cessation treatment. There should be an elaborate plan to ban smoking in public places like bars, restaurants, and workplaces. Public places smoking ban will reduce the adverse effects of passive smoking. Thirty-eight states have banned public spaces, which should be increased to all states.

Siewchaisakul et al. (2020) talk of delivery techniques that aim at smoking cessation among the target group. The changes ought to be effected to ensure that the objectives and other important aspects of the campaign are met. On the other hand, we can agree that healthcare providers should create the best program to help treat adolescents. Teachers and parents should enable teenagers to set goals and views related to smoking. There should be the application of the five A’s: ask, advice, assess, assist, and arrange. Tackling the problem at an earlier stage reduces the occurrence of new smokers. Treating the experienced smokers who are willing to quit will help tackle the issue significantly. In summary, the article’s strengths have what it takes to push for better results when it comes to enacting the effectiveness of smoking cessation and the role of health practitioners. For instance, male smokers need to be educated on measures to reduce the intake of the substance and thus better outcomes in the long run.

Barriers that prevent smokers in lower socioeconomic groups from accessing smoking cessation in adulthood

According to Owens et al., some barriers emanate from the campaign to address smoking cessation among adults. They use their considerable resources to lobby legislators to help protect their interests. Heavy lobbying has safeguarded them from measures like bills to increase taxes. Cigarette producers continue to hinder reducing the current use of tobacco in the US. However, Medicaid coverage for cigarette cessation treatment in the US has become a massive barrier due to some legislators opposing the expansion of Medicaid. Additionally, it is evident that these manufacturers use the vast resources to lobby for legislation to protect them from increased taxation, thus affecting the overall strategies toward addressing the issue of smoking. Finally, the different ideology in the US universal health care coverage has adverse effects on the imperative programs that gear towards smoking cessation and treatment.



Brantley, E. J., Greene, J., Bruen, B. K., Steinmetz, E. P., & Ku, L. C. (2019). Policies affecting Medicaid beneficiaries’ smoking cessation behaviors. Nicotine and Tobacco Research21(2), 197-204.

CDC. (2020, December 15). Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from,with%20a%20smoking%2Drelated%20disease.

Dai, H., & Leventhal, A. M. (2019). Prevalence of e-cigarette use among adults in the United States, 2014-2018. Jama322(18), 1824-1827.

Hu, S. S., Homa, D. M., Wang, T., Gomez, Y., Walton, K., Lu, H., & Neff, L. (2019). Peer reviewed: state-specific patterns of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and e-cigarette use among adults—United States, 2016. Preventing chronic disease16.

Hsu, C. Y., Liao, H. E., & Huang, L. C. (2020). Exploring smoking cessation behaviors of outpatients in outpatient clinics. Medicine99(27), e20971.

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Curry, S. J., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B. (2020). Primary Care Interventions for Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents. JAMA323(16), 1590.

Rahimi, A., Hashemzadeh, M., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, A., & Daei, A. (2019). Transtheoretical model of health behavioral change: A systematic review. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research24(2), 83.

Siewchaisakul, P., Luh, D. L., Chiu, S., Yen, A., Chen, C. D., & Chen, H. H. (2020). Smoking cessation advice from healthcare professionals helps those in the contemplation and preparation stage: An application with transtheoretical model underpinning in a community-based program. Tobacco Induced Diseases18(July).

Van Wijk, E. C., Landais, L. L., & Harting, J. (2019). Understanding the multitude of barriers that prevent smokers in lower socioeconomic groups from accessing smoking cessation support: A literature review. Preventive medicine123, 143-151.