Examine the Role of Theoretical Frameworks in Intervention with Individuals
For this assignment, prepare a white paper to help educate others on mental health issues in adults. Assume this paper could be distributed to either clients or their family and friends who may be struggling with their diagnosis or even how to interact with a loved one who has recently received this diagnosis. Recall the purposes and format of a white paper from those you’ve written in precious courses.
Choose two major theory-based treatments used for working with individual adults with mental illnesses. You have many choices including those introduced in earlier Course and those discussed in the Introductory Lecture above.
In your paper, address the following:
Thoroughly describe each theory-based intervention. Examples of the types of questions you might address include, but are not limited to- What are the basic tenets of the theory? What is the history of the theory/model? Is it based on or did it grow out of another theory? Is this a long- or short-term treatment?
What actually happens in this intervention? (i.e. is this a "sit-down" therapy? Is it a group treatment?). What specific skills does a social worker use when implementing this intervention?
Discuss which mental health disorders are best treated using each of these theories. What evidence is there for this claim? Specifically address what research supports the use of this particular theory for this particular disorder? How has that research been translated into the treatment?
Consider this theory in the context of human rights and social justice. Does this theory specifically address issues of social, economic, or environmental justice? If so, how? If not, based on implicit assumptions you see in this theory/model, discuss the ways in which it does or does not support the social work focus on social justice.
Utilize evidence-based practice to determine which treatments are best for various mental health disorders.
Explain cultural limitations to the various treatments.
Interpret stigmas associated with the labels of mental illness.
Support your assignment with at least three scholarly resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including seminal articles, may be included.
Length: 4-6 pages, not including title and reference pages
Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the Course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.
Role of Theoretical Framework in Intervention with Individuals
The prevalence of mental disorders is high, and it seems to be increasing. Research on mental health has helped in finding evidence-based treatments for mental illnesses. These treatments can be psychotherapy, support group, medication, peer support, hospitalization, complementary and alternative medicine, self-help plan, and peer support. Several theory-based treatments can help manage anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems. This paper aims to discuss two major theory-based treatments for mental health: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
CBT is a short-term, goal-oriented therapy. It focuses on the relationship between the actions and thoughts of a person and assists people change their thought patterns that can be the source of unproductive, unhealthy, and debilitating behavior. The therapist helps an individual learn how to identify persistent adverse thoughts or beliefs and retort to them effectively. CBT is composed of several tenets. First, the treatment plan is founded on an ever-developing cognitive conceptualization. This therapy also needs a good therapeutic relationship. It is culturally adapted, tailors treatments depending on an individual’s unique needs, emphasizes positive thinking and behavior, and continually monitors a client’s progress.
CBT is not a new therapy. It has philosophical, behavioral, and cognitive therapy roots. Some fundamental aspects of this therapy are associated with early philosophical backgrounds, such as stoicism. The stoic theorists such as Epictetus alleged that logic helped determine and discard incorrect views that can destroy emotions. This has contributed to the contemporary cognitive-behavioral counselors identifying the cognitive alterations that can cause anxiety and depression. The modern origins of CBT are drawn to the evolution of behavior therapy early in the 20th century, cognitive therapy in the 1960s, and consequent integration of the two. The origin was the works of John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner’s research of conditioning in the 1920s. Between the 1950s and 1960, Alfred Adler incorporated psychotherapy and cognition. His work influenced Albert Ellis’s works, who came up with the initial cognitive-based psychotherapy called rational emotive therapy.
CBT therapy is a time-sensitive, present-oriented, and structured psychotherapy tested scientifically and found to be effective in more than 2000 studies for treating many mental health illnesses. When implemented effectively, it helps individuals get better and live and more quality life. It helps individuals identify the thoughts stressing them and evaluate how realistic these thoughts are. Then these individuals can learn to change their negative thinking. It is considered a short-term therapy that ranges from approximately five to about 20 sessions. The benefits are short-term, especially for people with residual symptoms of depression. CBT is often offered individually but can also be provided in groups. It is a collaborative therapy that requires the individual and counselor to work together.
For social workers to implement this intervention, they need to possess high levels of self-awareness. They should clearly know the subject types and characters that may stress them and develop tactics that will help them process these feelings and continue being helpful to the clients. The social worker should also be empathetic have boundary-setting skills, good listening skills, social and communication skills, and critical thinking skills to help the patient. Several mental health disorders are treated using CBT. In addition to anxiety disorders, CBT can also treat bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, panic disorder, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis, and phobia.
CBT has shown promising long-term results in people with anxiety disorders in efficacy trials (Kodal et al., 2018). David et al. (2018), Consider this therapy as a gold-standard psychological intervention because it is one of the most studied psychotherapy. No other type of psychotherapy has been revealed superior to this therapy. CBT is effective in different criminal justice settings in both institutions and communities and, therefore, can improve social settings when people do not have mental illnesses. There are no cultural limitations for CBT. However, the therapists have to be culturally sensitive because different cultures have diverse needs. However, it is essential to note that CBT is inappropriate for persons with multifaceted mental health needs or learning problems. Lack of information and education about mental illness hinders seeking therapy among African Americans. There is also fear of being stigmatized for needing a therapist.
Psychodynamic therapy emphasizes how some life events and relations, both former and current, can affect the present relationships, feelings, and choices. The treatment aims at helping an individual acknowledge and comprehend the negative feelings and repressed emotions to solve the inner psychological struggles and improve life experiences, relations, and self-esteem. One of the tenets of psychodynamic therapy is that it assumes that all behaviors have an underlying cause. The behavior of a person can originate in their unconscious. The last tenet is that different aspect of the unconscious of an individual struggle against each other.
The source of psychodynamic therapy is Sigmund Freud. However, in the 19th century, the theory has considerably evolved. The early scholars who contributed to the development of the treatment are Melanie Klein, Carl Jung, and Anna Freud. This therapy began with the practice of psychoanalysis which is referred to as the talking cure. It is also referred to as depth psychology. Psychodynamic therapy is strongly inclined to all the patients who need long-term treatment despite their diagnosis. During psychodynamic therapy, the therapist facilitates a deeper understanding of a person’s emotions and other mental processes. This assists individuals in gaining a deeper insight into how they feel and think. When individuals understand their feelings, there are likely to make better decisions in their lives.
The patient can sit down and talk to a therapist’s face to face or online. It is referred to as talking therapy. It can be group therapy or individual therapy, whereby the therapist guides the discussion among a group of participants. A social worker offering psychodynamic therapy should be empathetic and ready to listen to the patient; they should also possess critical thinking skills to help the patient. Self-awareness is also essential. This therapy can help treat anxiety, panic disorders, prolonged sadness, stress-related psychical ailments, post-traumatic stress disorder, persistent feelings of loneliness and isolation, and personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder. The American Psychological Association approves the use of psychodynamic therapy in treating a wide range of mental health illnesses (American Psychological Association. (n.d.). It is a human right to access health care, including mental health care such as psychodynamic therapy. Although there are no cultural limitations to this therapy, some groups such as African Americans do not seek this form of treatment for fear of stigma. Others lack knowledge and education on the importance of this therapy.
In conclusion, cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy are effective in treating mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Both therapies can be held as individual or group therapies. Research has proved the effectiveness of these therapies. There is a need to educate the minority groups to eliminate stigma for those who seek help for mental health illnesses.
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Psychodynamic psychotherapy brings lasting benefits through self-knowledge. https://www.apa.org. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/01/psychodynamic-therapy
David, D., Cristea, I., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Why cognitive behavioral therapy is the current gold standard of psychotherapy. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 4. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00004/full
Kodal, A., Fjermestad, K., Bjelland, I., Gjestad, R., Öst, L. G., Bjaastad, J. F., … & Wergeland, G. J. (2018). Long-term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with anxiety disorders. Journal of anxiety disorders, 53, 58-67. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887618517304280