PICOT Question Paper

PICOT Question Paper

PICOT Question Paper 150 150 Peter

PICOT Question Paper

Review your problem or issue and the study materials to formulate a PICOT question for your capstone project change proposal. A PICOT question starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention used to address the problem must be a nursing practice intervention. Include a comparison of the nursing intervention to a patient population not currently receiving the nursing intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process. Formulate a PICOT question using the PICOT format (provided in the assigned readings) that addresses the clinical nursing problem.

The PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project change proposal.

In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem and how it can result in a positive patient outcome.

Describe the problem in the PICOT question as it relates to the following:

1. Evidence-based solution
2. Nursing intervention
3. Patient care
4. Health care agency
5. Nursing practice
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Sample Paper


Among patients who have just undergone surgery, one of the most significant causes of negative outcomes is surgical site infections. The CDC defines a surgical site infection as an infection that will occur in the part of the body where the surgery occurred after the surgery has ended (CDC, 2020). Surgical site infections include superficial infections that can involve only the skin of a patient, while some surgical site infections can be quite serious and cause integrity issues under the skin, implanted material, or organs of a patient. The average prevalence of surgical site infection across the US is currently estimated to be around 2.8 %( CDC, 2020). However, most scholars argue that the current statistics significantly underrepresent the true incidence of surgical site infections because of the significant problems related to voluntary self-reporting of SSIs by healthcare practitioners and patients. Nurses play a significant role in preventing the onset of surgical site infections among patients as they are the ones that are in charge of providing care to patients who are recovering from surgery. Over the years, different scholars have provided different evidence-based approaches that can be utilized by nurses to reduce SSIs. According to Saravanakumar & Devi (2019), nurses should only give antibiotic prophylaxis to patients according to guidelines so as to limit the post-operative duration of antibiotic resistance, which can contribute to the onset of surgical-site infections. According to Unno et al. (2020), following hand hygiene guidelines which include the use of alcohol-based hand rub before and after handling patients who have just received surgery or washing hands with soap and running water before and after handling patients, is also an effective intervention that nurses can utilize to reduce the incidence of Surgical Site Infections.

Considering the clinical based issue of surgical site infections, the ideal nursing intervention that can help prevent the incidence of surgical-site infections among patients who have just received surgery would include the adoption of a hand hygiene protocol. The PICOT question for the considered clinical issue includes Among patients recovering from surgery (P), will the implementation of hand hygiene protocol (I), compared to not implementing a hand hygiene protocol (C), help reduce the incidence of surgical site infection(O) within a period of six months (T)?

Evidence-based Solutions

The evidence-based solution that nurses can adopt to try and reduce the prevalence of surgical site infections in the recovery unit after surgery is the implementation of a hand hygiene protocol. Scholarly studies have consistently indicated that the implementation of a hand hygiene protocol in a healthcare facility, including a surgery recovery unit, can lead to a reduction in the prevalence of infections by at least 40% (Easton et al., 2017).

Nursing Intervention

The adoption of hand hygiene protocol is an ideal nursing intervention that can be adopted to reduce the incidence of surgical-site infections in the surgery recovery unit (Tartari et al., 2017).

Patient Care

The ideal patient care strategies that can help to reduce the rates of surgical-site infections in the recovery unit of a hospital facility would include hand hygiene compliance for both nurses and patients recovering from surgery. This can help to improve the outcomes of patients (Tartari et al., 2017).

Healthcare Agency

Adoption of hand hygiene compliance protocols in health care agencies can help to reduce SSI incidence rates and eventually improve the standard quality rating of a healthcare facility. High-quality standard ratings in a healthcare facility can contribute to better financial performance.

Nursing Practice

Hand hygiene compliance can improve the efficiency of nurses in preventing SSI and their role in helping patients recover fast after a surgery (Easton et al., 2017).



CDC. (2020). Surgical Site Infection (SSI) | HAI | CDC. CDC.Gov. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/hai/ssi/ssi.html#:%7E:text=A%20surgical%20site%20infection%20is,infections%20involving%20the%20skin%20only.

Easton, L., Spratt, D., Schwab, C., Zucchiatti, A., & Landfried, M. (2017). Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Team Approach. American Journal of Infection Control45(6), S110–S111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.04.185

Saravanakumar, R., & Devi, B. M. P. (2019). Surgical site infection in a tertiary care center-an overview – A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Surgery Open21, 12–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijso.2019.09.008

Tartari, E., Weterings, V., Gastmeier, P., Rodríguez Baño, J., Widmer, A., Kluytmans, J., & Voss, A. (2017). Patient engagement with surgical site infection prevention: an expert panel perspective. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-017-0202-3

Unno, R., Taguchi, K., Fujii, Y., Unno, N., Hamamoto, S., Ando, R., Nakane, A., Okada, A., Kamiya, H., & Yasui, T. (2020). Surgical hand hygiene and febrile urinary tract infections in endourological surgery: a single-centre prospective cohort study. Scientific Reports10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71556-z