PICOT Paper and Literature Evaluation

PICOT Paper and Literature Evaluation

PICOT Paper and Literature Evaluation 150 150 Peter

PICOT Paper and Literature Evaluation


While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone project change proposal, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project.

A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:

  1. Title page
  2. Introduction section
  3. A comparison of research questions
  4. A comparison of sample populations
  5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
  6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


Literature Review – Rubric

Literature Review

An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. Information presented in the introduction is intriguing and encourages the reader to continue reading.

Comparison of Research Questions

A reflective and insightful comparison of research questions is presented.

Comparison of Sample Populations

A reflective and insightful comparison of sample populations is presented.

Comparison of the Limitations of the Study

A reflective and insightful comparison of the limitations of the study is presented.

Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Research

A conclusion and recommendations for further research are reflective and insightful.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Argument Logic and Construction

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Sample Paper

Literature Review


The nurses experience numerous challenges in their places of work. The nurses are affected by work burnouts, social life imbalance, and general distress due to workplaces with incivility. In response to the adverse conditions, the nurses end up in depression, have a higher level of intention to leave their jobs, and perform poorly in their job, thus jeopardizing the quality of care and patients’ safety. Numerous studies are carried out to establish the effectiveness of stress management controls to the nurses in maintaining their health and care performance. This paper will analyze the relevance of the studies to the PICO question seeking to establish the impact of using programs, resources, and improved staffing ratios in reducing nurse stress and burnout.

Research Questions

The research questions revolve around the PICO question concerning the interventions of reducing the prevalence of nurse burnout and stress. Barutcu (2017) compares the intergenerational response to stress among the X and Y generations. This question seeks to establish how the generations cope with stress. This research question is different from the research question by Chesak (2021), seeking to establish the effectiveness of resiliency training programs in helping nurses cope with stress. While Barutcu (2017), While et al. (2021), and Hasan (2019) seeks to explore the nurse response to burnout and stress, Chesak et al. (2021), Donaldson et al. (2017), Karbakhsh (2020), and Watanabe (2019) test the effectiveness of various interventions. All questions are linked to the PICO questions.

Sample Populations

The sample populations are nurses who should be investigated on how they respond to the interventions or distress in improving their health and functionality in the healthcare system. All studies in the list used nurse samples since their research questions were inclined to understand how the nurses responded to particular interventions and thus relevant to the research questions. The sampled nurses were in a hospital setting from various departments where they were prone to stress and burnout. Only While et al. (2021) focused on community nurses whose workplace is within the community and not hospital-based. The studies included substantially bigger sample populations with at least 50 nurses. Chesak (2021) had the least population size of 51, which is effective for analysis, while Barutcu (2017) had the highest population size of 175 participants. This indicates that the population sizes can be reliable for the generalizability of the results.

Comparison of the Limitations of the Study

The studies have presented various limitations experienced during the research process. One of the key limitations is the incomplete adherence of the nurses towards the interventions. Chesak et al. (2021) reported that lack of complete adherence to the interventions, and thus, the results did not provide the full details of the effectiveness of the intervention, even though the results showed positivity towards the intervention. Donaldson et al. (2017) also noted a similar response of the nurses adhering to the research processes and not completing the study. According to the article, not all nurses exposed to the intervention completed the pre-test and post-test questionnaire. This shows a lack of adherence to the study protocols, thus limiting the achievement of the expected results. Unlike lack of adherence to study protocols, Barutcu (2017) describes the population size disparities as one of the study’s main limitations. According to the study, only 37.1% were from the Y generation, and thus most of the data collected were from the X generation. The limitations do not indicate biasness, and thus the data collected from the studies can be trusted. The aspect of participants not completing the studies or not adhering to the protocols does not fully affect the levels or reliability of the study results since levels of adherence were at least above 80%.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Nurse burnout and distressing environment negatively impact the nurses’ emotional and physical health, and thus key interventions should be applied. Nurses possess intergenerational responses to stress, with the X generation being more open to supporting than the Y generation. This shows that the interventions should be tailored to the nurses considering their generations. Stress coping skills should be taught to nurses in enabling them to develop mindfulness and resiliency to stress. Studies have shown the importance of providing a friendly environment and enhancing the well-being of the nurses. This can be achieved by having a smaller nurse-to-patient ratio and eliminating incivility in the workplace. The studies highly focused on nurse burnout and stress emanating from incivility in the workplace as the key factors leading to distress to the nurses. Future studies should focus on non-induced stress such as the pain of patient loss and suffering as an important concern in reducing the prevalence of depression. Most nurses experience pain and stress whenever they lose their patients or experience agonizing conditions of the patients. This is not highlighted in the studies, and thus future studies should highlight the key interventions in controlling the non-induced stress and depression among nurses in their workplaces.


This study aims at establishing the effectiveness of providing resources, support programs, and improved staffing in reducing stress and burnout among the nurses. The main goal of the study is to reduce the prevalence of stress and burnout among nurses in improving the quality of care.



Barutcu, C. D. (2017). Examination of Professional Commitment and Stress Management among Nurses from Different Generations. http://www.internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/49_baructu_original_10_1.pdf

Chesak, S. S. (2021). Feasibility and efficacy of integrating resiliency training into a pilot nurse residency program. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2020.102959

Donaldson, J. (2017). The Effect of Aromatherapy on Anxiety Experienced by Hospital Nurses. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=34&sid=011588b9-1403-4d3a-b643-b0a58a6d6b6f%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=123430222&db=ccm

Elliott, C. (2017). Emotional labour: learning from the past, understanding the present. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=33&sid=011588b9-1403-4d3a-b643b0a58a6d6b6f%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=125879911&db=ccm

Hasan, A. A. (2019). The correlation between occupational stress, coping strategies, and the levels of psychological distress among nurses working in mental health hospital in Jordan. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29781526/

Karbakhsh, R. (2020). The Effectiveness of a Time Management Workshop on Job Stress of Nurses Working in Emergency Departments: An Experimental Study. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=14&sid=011588b9-1403-4d3a-b643-b0a58a6d6b6f%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=144420273&db=ccm

While, A. E., & Clark, L. L. (2021). Management of work stress and burnout among community nurses arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.https://content.ebscohost.com/ ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=151723011&S=R&D=ccm&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep644yNfsOLCmsEqeprJSs664TLGWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGusUuxp7dOuePfgeyx43zxpwAA

Watanabe, N. (2019).Brief mindfulness-based stress management program for a better mental state in working populations – Happy Nurse Project: A randomized controlled trial. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=011588b9-1403-4d3a-b643-b0a58a6d6b6f%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=edselp&AN=