NURS 6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior
NURS6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior
An infection by a disease causing microorganisms often lead to alteration in the cellular responses. The alteration in the cellular responses result in the development of signs and symptoms that guide the development of diagnoses and treatment plans. The cellular responses also reflect the active role that innate and acquired immunity plays in preventing individuals from a disease. The management of diseases relies on the use of interventions such as prescription of pharmacological agents. Patient factors must be considered in the prescription of drugs to minimize the risk of adverse events. Therefore, this paper examines a case study to evaluate the role of genetics, presentation of signs and symptoms and influence of age on the selected patient assignment.
The Role of Genetics in the Disease
Recurrent sore throat is a common health problem in children. Streptococcus group A bacteria causes this health problem and is often associated with genetics (Zupin et al., 2016). Accordingly, the existence of genetic variations in the HLA region have been linked to the recurrence in sore throat. The variations in the HLA region of the genes have been shown to cause gene mediated interaction with the bacteria causing sore throat (Tian et al., 2017). The genetic variation in the HLA region has also been shown to alter the normal innate as well as acquire defense systems towards the bacterial infection (Pearce et al., 2020). The influence of genetics in sore throat can also be seen in the recurrence of the disease in twins. The recurrence of sore-throat related infections such as tonsillitis in identical twins is almost similar while the rate of recurrence varies in dizygotic twins. Due to this, scholars argue that about 60% of sore throat recurrence in children is associated with environmental exposures while the rest occurs due to environmental exposure. Similar findings can be seen in the study by Bager et al., (2018) where the researchers found the recurrence of severe tonsillitis to be highly linked to genetic factors. The authors found that the influence of genetics on the development of severe tonsillitis did not depend on patient’s age and sex. Therefore, genetics play a role in the recurrence of the sore throat infections.
Why Patient is presenting with the Specific Symptoms
The signs and symptoms that the patient presented with to the hospital is attributed to the changes in the cellular response processes. The invasion of the body with Streptococcus group A bacteria stimulates immune response that is characterized by the secretion of pus as well as reddening and inflammation of the tonsils. The production of pus arises from the release of inflammatory cells in response to the infection to fight the bacteria. As a result, the clinical symptoms of sore throat develop due to the accumulation of the fibronectin-binding proteins in the pharynx. The symptoms that the patient reported following ingestion of amoxicillin were attributed to allergic reactions to antibiotics. The symptoms show that the ingestion of amoxicillin led to the stimulation of the immune system to release IgE. The release of IgE increased the secretion of inflammatory cells such as interleukins and cytokines. The result of these processes is that massive inflammation occurred leading to vomiting, nausea, fast heart rate, difficulty in breathing, wheezing, swelling of the face and lips and shock. These symptoms are the signs or allergic response to an allergen such as drug or environmental pollutant.
Physiologic Response to Stimuli
A number of signs and symptoms in the case study demonstrate the patient’s response to stimuli. The signs and symptoms include the reddening of the posterior pharynx alongside the enlargement of the tonsils 3+. The assessment also revealed posterior and anterior cervical adenopathy, which imply immune response to the infection. A rapid strep test also confirmed the positive diagnosis of streptococcus group A bacteria (Volavšek, 2016). These symptoms were experienced due to the patient’s acquired and innate response to the infection.
Cells and Cellular Mediators
The cellar mediators that were involved in the response to the infection include prostaglandins E2m chemokines, leukotriene B4, eicosanoids, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines that enhanced the inflammatory processes. The cells that were involved in the response include macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial, mast, and dendritic cells. The mediated actions of these cells and the cellular response mechanisms led to the development of the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as recovery from it (Kırmusaoğlu, 2018). The response to infection by the cells also led to the symptoms seen in the allergic reaction to amoxicillin.
Effect of Age on Response
The response to Streptococcus group A bacterial infections vary with age. Unlike children, adults are least likely to be affected by the infection. The symptoms of the infection are also less severe in adults than in children. The differences in the response is attributed to the influence of immune system development in adults than in children (Chanmugam et al., 2016). Therefore, healthcare providers should make treatment decisions with a consideration of the age of the patients to minimize the risk of adverse drug events.
Bager, P., Corn, G., Wohlfahrt, J., Boyd, H. A., Feenstra, B., & Melbye, M. (2018). Familial aggregation of tonsillectomy in early childhood and adolescence. Clinical Epidemiology, 10, 97–105. https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S148575
Chanmugam, A. S., Bissonette, A., Rothman (MD), R., Desai, S. V., & Putman, S. B. (2016). Infectious Diseases Emergencies. Oxford University Press.
Kırmusaoğlu, S. (2018). Bacterial Pathogenesis and Antibacterial Control. BoD – Books on Demand.
Pearce, S., Bowen, A. C., Engel, M. E., Lande, M. de la, & Barth, D. D. (2020). The incidence of sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children at high risk of developing acute rheumatic fever: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0242107. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242107
Tian, C., Hromatka, B. S., Kiefer, A. K., Eriksson, N., Noble, S. M., Tung, J. Y., & Hinds, D. A. (2017). Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections. Nature Communications, 8(1), 599. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00257-5
Volavšek, M. (2016). Head and Neck Pathology. Springer International Publishing.
Zupin, L., Angelelli, F., Grasso, D., & Crovella, S. (2016). Lactoferrin gene polymorphisms in Italian patients with recurrent tonsillitis. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.07.002
Case Study Analysis
An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.
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An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:
Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
By Day 7 of Week 2
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.