NURS 6501 Week 6 Advanced Pathophysiology

NURS 6501 Week 6 Advanced Pathophysiology

NURS 6501 Week 6 Advanced Pathophysiology 150 150 Prisc

NURS 6501 Week 6 Advanced Pathophysiology

NURS6501 Week 6 Advanced Pathophysiology

  • Question 3

Scenario 2: Type 1 Diabetes

A 14-year-old girl is brought to the pediatrician’s office by his parents who are concerned about their daughter’s weight loss despite eating more, frequent urination, unquenchable thirst, and fatigue that is interfering with her school activities. She had been seemingly healthy until about 4 months ago when her parents started noticing these symptoms. She admits to sleeping more and gets tired very easily.

PMH: noncontributory.


FH:- maternal uncle with “some kind of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the exact disease process

SH: denies alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use. Not sexually active.

Labs: random glucose 244 mg/dl.

DIAGNOSIS: Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and refers to an endocrinologist for further work up and management plan.


1.    Explain the genetics relationship and how this and the environment can contribute to Type I DM.

Selected Answer:  Type 1 diabetes can occur due to genetics, environmental, and or lifestyle influences. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that leads to progressive pancreatic ß-cell destruction and culminates in absolute insulin deficiency and stable hyperglycemia. Environmental factors likely play a role in triggering islet autoimmunity. Factors such as gluten, breastfeeding and cow’s milk, vitamin D intake, the composition of your gut microbiota, infections acquired, antibiotics, and other medications taken may all play a role and affect the patient, leading to type 1 diabetes. 

Genetic factors include: Islet autoantibodies found in serum – Interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes – Excess IFIH1 (MDA5) levels may contribute to inflammation and autoimmunity. – PTPN22 contains risk polymorphisms that almost double the risk for T1D – High expression of CTLA-4 leads to inhibition of T cell activation – IL10 has an anti-inflammatory effect and has been identified as a risk factor for T1D – TNFAIP3 exerts anti-inflammatory function by inhibiting NF-κB activation and is associated with T1D. – Interleukin-21 and IL-2.

Correct Answer: Islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) were detected in serum from patients with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiency. They have subsequently been identified in 85 percent of patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and in prediabetic people. Autoantigens form on insulin producing beta cells and circulate in the blood and lymphatics. This leads to processing and presentation of autoantigen by antigen presenting cells
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Scenario 3: Type II DM

A 55-year-old male presents with complaints of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. He also noted that his feet on the bottom are feeling “strange” “like ants crawling on them” and noted his vision is blurry sometimes. He has increased an increased appetite, but still losing weight. He also complains of “swelling” and enlargement of his abdomen.

PMH: HTN – well controlled with medications. He has mixed hyperlipidemia, and central abdominal obesity. Physical exam unremarkable except for decreased filament test both feet. Random glucose in office 333 mg/dl.

Diagnosis: Type II DM and prescribes oral medication to control the glucose level and also referred the patient to a dietician for dietary teaching.


1.     How would you describe the pathophysiology of Type II DM?  

Selected Answer: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition regarding how the body metabolizes glucose in the body. Two situations cause type 2 diabetes: the body develops insulin resistance, or the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. The cause of type 2 diabetes is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors. 

Type 2 diabetes can be managed with diet and exercise in some cases. Once this therapy is unsuccessful, medications are added, changed, or increased.

factors that put one at a higher risk for type ll DM include being overweight, high-fat content in the trunk, inactivity, family history, ethnicity/race, age, prediabetic, gestational diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Correct Answer: There are very complex interactions that result in the development of Type II diabetes. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production, and declining β-cell function, eventually leading toβ -cell failure. Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of a constellation of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. It is often associated with obesity.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

Week 6 Knowledge Check

Endocrine Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10-20 question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:


Hyper- and hypothyroidism

Adrenal disorders

Parathyroidism (hyper and hypo)

Checks & balances / negative feedback

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone


Diabetes insipidus

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

(Note: It is strongly recommended that you take the Knowledge Check at least 48 hours before taking the Midterm Exam.)

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 5 of Week 6

Question 1          Dysfunction of the posterior pituitary can cause:

Question 2          Dysfunction of the thyroid gland can cause:

Question 3          Cell that stores fat are known as:

Question 4          Primary hyperparathyroidism can lead to the development of:

Question 5          Dysfunction of the anterior pituitary can cause:

Question 6          Type of adipose tissue, located viscerally and subcutaneously, with adipocytes that have one lipid droplet are called as:

Question 7          In autoimmune-mediated diabetes pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by autoreactive  ______________________

Question 8          Water-soluble hormones generally have a short half-life

Question 9          Weakness, fatigue, hypotension, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, elevated ACTH are symptoms of what condition?

Question 10        Plasma calcium concentration is regulated by what hormone?

Question 11        A person who has an iodine-deficient diet will have difficulty making enough of what hormone?

Question 12        Type of adipose tissue located in bone marrow is called:

Question 13        Extracellular fluid volume and plasma potassium concentration is regulated by what hormone?

Question 14        HIgh levels of what hormone is common in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)?

Question 15        Cytokines and hormones secreted by adipose tissue are known as _______________

Question 16        Enlargement of the thyroid gland  is a response to increased stimulation by ______________

Question 17        Low hormone concentrations usually cause cells to _________________ receptors for that hormone.

Question 18        Lethargy, hyponatremia, perhaps seizure, decreased plasma osmolality, concentrated urine are symptoms of what condition?

Question 19        Where are incretins released from?

Question 20        Cretinism is caused by untreated congenital _______________ .

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.