NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology
NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology
The Factors That Affect Fertility (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) significantly affect fertility, especially in women. A common STD associated with infertility is Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (Curry et al., 2019). PID is characterized by infection of the upper female genital tract organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and pelvic structures (Curry et al., 2019). The infection results in inflammation, which results in scarring and adhesions in the tubal lumens. The risk of developing infertility in a woman increases with each PID episode.
Why Inflammatory Markers Rise In STD/PID
PID is marked by an increase in inflammatory markers due to infection and inflammation in the upper genital tract. Chlamydia infection is marked with the sharpest rise in inflammatory markers since it causes a worse irritation compared to other STI-causing organisms (Park et al., 2017). Inflammatory markers that rise in STDs and PID include white blood cells, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Why Prostatitis and Infection Happens
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland and is often a complication of STDs in males. It occurs when an infection from the lower urinary tract ascends through the urethra or reflux of infected into the prostate ducts (Coker & Dierfeldt, 2016). This results in infection and eventually inflammation of the prostate gland. A systemic reaction in prostatitis occurs when the pathogens spread from the rectum to other organs via the lymphatic system (Coker & Dierfeldt, 2016). The pathogens cause an infection of the lymph nodes resulting in lymphadenopathy.
Why a Patient Would Need a Splenectomy after a Diagnosis of ITP
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a blood disorder marked by a decrease in the number of platelets. It is an autoimmune condition where there is an immune reaction against one’s platelets (Nomura, 2016). The autoimmune reaction contributes to a reduced platelet lifespan and decreased platelet production resulting in a reduced number of circulating platelets. The first-line treatment of ITP is corticosteroid therapy. A patient will need a splenectomy following a diagnosis of ITP if they fail to attain a stable, safe platelet count after corticosteroid therapy (Nomura, 2016). A splenectomy is indicated for achieving a fast, complete, and lifetime clinical remission (Nomura, 2016). Besides, a splenectomy prevents sequestration and phagocytosis of platelets by mononuclear macrophages located in the spleen.
Anemia and the Different Kinds of Anemia
Anemia manifests with a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass. It is marked by a reduction in hemoglobin level below the normal range below 12.5 g/dl (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Hemoglobin and RBCs play a vital role in the transport of oxygen in the circulation. When the two are decreased, oxygen delivery to body tissues is impaired (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Other blood components used in diagnosing anemia include reduced levels of Hematocrit (HCT), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Morphologic characteristics of RBCs in a healthy person are normocytic and normochromic. Anemia present with varying morphologic features of RBCs (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). In macrocytic anemia, RBCs are large, nucleated, and misshaped, termed as megaloblasts (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Macrocytic anemia occurs in anemia caused by Vitamin B-12 and Folic acid deficiency. Iron-deficiency anemia is characterized by hypochromic and microcytic RBCs. Erythrocytes in microcytic anemia are usually small in size.
The patient in the case study has low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, which indicate anemia. The low reticulocyte count suggests a decreased production of RBCs in the bone marrow, which may be causing the low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017) (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). The low serum B1 2 levels denote that the anemia is caused by Vitamin B 12 deficiency, which plays a vital role in the synthesis of RBCs (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). The patient has high levels of MCV, plasma iron, and ferritin levels, while Folate and Total Iron Binding Capacity are normal. The results mean that the anemia is caused by Folic acid or Iron deficiency. In other words, the patient has Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia, also known as Pernicious anemia.
Coker, T. J., & Dierfeldt, D. M. (2016). Acute bacterial prostatitis: diagnosis and management. American family physician, 93(2), 114-120.
Curry, A., Williams, T., & Penny, M. L. (2019). Pelvic inflammatory disease: diagnosis, management, and prevention. American family physician, 100(6), 357-364.
Nagao, T., & Hirokawa, M. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of macrocytic anemias in adults. Journal of general and family medicine, 18(5), 200-204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgf2.31
Nomura S. (2016). Advances in Diagnosis and Treatments for Immune Thrombocytopenia. Clinical medicine insights. Blood disorders, 9, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.4137/CMBD.S39643
Park, S. T., Lee, S. W., Kim, M. J., Kang, Y. M., Moon, H. M., & Rhim, C. C. (2017). Clinical characteristics of genital Chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease. BMC women’s health, 17(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0356-9
Week 3 Knowledge Check
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders
In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.
Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:
deep vein thrombosis
Question 1Sympathetic stimulation causes airways to:
Question 2 Ischemic pain in the lower extremities that occurs while walking but disappears when resting is a description of which condition?
Question 3How much oxygen does the myocardium extract from the coronary arteries?
Question 4 Stimulation of the carina often causes:
Question 5A person who has pulmonary edema will exhibit which symptoms?
Question 6Passage of fluid and/or solid particles into the lungs is a(n):
Question 7The tunica media is the middle layer of blood vessels and is composed of what type of tissue?
Question 8A patient that is hyperventilating will have a decreased:
Question 9Inflammatory disease of peripheral arteries that usually is associated with smoking is a description of which condition?
Question 10 Parasympathetic stimulation causes airways to:
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.