NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes 150 150 Prisc

NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Alterations in Cellular Processes

A 16-year-old boy was diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis at the clinic after a positive strep test. Red patches on the roof of the mouth, inflamed tonsils, white dots on the tonsils and rear of the mouth are all indications of strep throat (Askarian et al, 2019). Tonsilitis (tonsil inflammation) may be because of viral or bacterial or infection. The bacteria that is associated with strep throat infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. The most common way for strep pharyngitis to transmit is from person to person via saliva or nasal discharge.

The role genetics plays in sore throat.

For children with repeated strep throat infections a research found there is a genetic predisposition that causes a poor response to group A strep bacterium immunity (Dan et al, 2019). The children with recurrent tonsillitis were found to have fewer immune cells called B cells in their tonsils. Recurrent tonsillitis may result in tonsillectomy due to overuse of antibiotics to treat it.

Reasons for the patient presenting with the specific symptom.

The patient had swollen tonsils with white exudate, a fever of 99.6, a sore throat, and a reddish pharynx, all of which were symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis. The positive result of strep test was confirmation of streptococcal pharyngitis for the patient.

Inflammation and soreness in the throat are symptoms of strep throat. Some symptoms of the sore throat may be mild but if left untreated, it could result in serious problems like acute rheumatic fever, that raises the risk of heart problems (Beaudoin et al, 2015). Antibiotics are a simple solution for strep throat.

The physiologic response to the stimulus

The patient had been prescribed amoxicillin. After the patient took the medication, there was a physiologic response that manifested as an allergic reaction. The patient experienced swollen lips and tongue, as well as trouble breathing with noticeable wheezing.

The cells that are involved in this process.

After the patient took the amoxicillin (the allergen), the body instantaneously reacted; the immune system produced Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antibody that circulates in the bloodstream to remove the allergen (McCance, 2019). The inflammatory response is triggered by mast cells and basophils. Many receptors specific to the IgE antibody are found in both basophils and mast cells.

Characteristic that may affect sore throat.

Some characteristics may influence the incidence and recovery after sore throat infection. Children are more affected by sore throat than adults. This could be due to the children being in close proximity at daycare or school. According to CDC, the most prevalent bacterial cause of pharyngitis in children is group A strep, which accounts for 20% to 30% of all cases, while in adults, it is thought to cause 5% to 15% of pharyngitis infections (2018). Due to older adults having weak immune response, they may take a longer time to recover after infection than young adults.

References

Askarian, B., Yoo, S.-C., & Chong, J. W. (2019). Novel Image Processing Method for Detecting Strep Throat (Streptococcal Pharyngitis) Using Smartphone. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)19(15). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/s19153307

 Beaudoin, A., Edison, L., Introcaso, C. E., Goh, L., Marrone, J., Mejia, A., & Van Beneden, C. (2015). Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease among children–American Samoa, 2011-2012. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report64(20), 555–558.

 CDC. (2018).  Pharyngitis (Strep Throat). Retrieved, June 1, 2021. From

https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html 

Dan, J. M., Havenar-Daughton, C., Kendric, K., Al-Kolla, R., Kaushik, K., Rosales, S. L., Anderson, E. L., LaRock, C. N., Vijayanand, P., Seumois, G., Layfield, D., Cutress, R. I., Ottensmeier, C. H., Lindestam Arlehamn, C. S., Sette, A., Nizet, V., Bothwell, M., Brigger, M., & Crotty, S. (2019). Recurrent group A Streptococcus tonsillitis is an immunosusceptibility disease involving antibody deficiency and aberrant TFH cells. Science translational medicine11(478), eaau3776. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau3776

McCance, S.H. K (2019). Pathophysiology. [MBS Direct]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323583473/

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation: NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Week 1 Case Study: NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

The case study assigned is that of a 27 year old male with a history of substance abuse who was found unresponsive by EMS. Patient was unresponsive for an unknown amount of time. Patient became responsive after he was given naloxone by the EMS personnel. Patient noted to have necrotic tissue over greater trochanter and his left forearm after he complained of burning sensation. The patient has prolonged PR interval and peaked T wave. He was also found to have a potassium level of 6.9 mEq/L.

The Role Genetics Pay in Opioid Drug Use

A review of classical genetic studies of opioid use suggests heritability of drug use behavior. However the evidence from molecular genetic studies is inconclusive. Nonetheless, certain genetic variants are important to consider given their role in the pathophysiology of addictive behavior.(Chetna et al,2014). Polymorphisms disrupting the opioid and dopamine systems have been associated with increased risk for developing substance use disorders. Molecular imaging studies have revealed how these polymorphisms impact the brain and contribute to cognitive and behavioral differences across individuals. (Burns et al, 2019). NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Why is the Patient Presenting with the Specific Symptoms?

The patient in this scenario is experiencing burning sensation because of necrosis in the hip and the forearm. This necrosis may be as a result of opioid IV drug abuse since this practice can lead to the development of necrosis in soft tissues. Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in cell death resulting from internal or external factors such as mechanistic injuries or chemical agents. Necrotic cells cease to function and if necrosis is sufficiently extensive, clinical disease results. If a patient has hyperkalemia, giving naloxone can precipitate arrhythmias and this might have been the case for this patient.. As the patient was given naloxone, the effects of the opioid drugs rapidly wore off causing the patient to go from high pain tolerance to low pain tolerance and thus the reason for the complaints of pain in the hips and forearm. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that reverses coma and respiratory depression caused by opioids.

How would gender change the response?

There is a growing evidence to suggest that men and women are impacted differently by opioid use disorder. The difference between men, women, and gender diverse people are boundless. A study found that women are susceptible to a heightened burden of disease from opioid use disorder. (Reekum et al, 2020). Women are more likely to suffer substance abuse side effects such as liver damage and opioid overdose. Because of this fact, we can conclude that although different genders are impacted differently by opioid use, it would have made no difference in this scenario. NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

References

Chetna J. Mistry., Monica, B., Dipika, D., David C.M., & Saaman, Z. (2014). Genetics of Opioid     Dependence: A Review of the Genetic Contribution to Opioid Dependence. Current Psychiatry Reviews. Retrieved September 03, 2020 from             https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155832/

Jamie A. Burns, Danielle S. Kroll, Dana E. Feldman, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza,       Corinde E. Wiers, Nora D. Volkow, & Gene-Jack Wang. (2019). Molecular Imaging of             Opioid and Dopamine Systems: Insights Into the Pharmacogenetics of Opioid Use             Disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10. https://doi-

org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00626

Van Reekum, E. A., Rosic, T., Hudson, J., Sanger, N., Marsh, D. C., Worster, A., Thabane, L., &   Samaan, Z. (2020). Social functioning outcomes in men and women receivi medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Biology of Sex Differences11(1),         1–11. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00298-4. NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion


What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

nurs 6501 discussion alterations in cellular processes

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.

Next Week

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review
Required Media (click to expand/reduce) 

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children,or ISBN 9780323654395(name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

it is true that cells are the basic structural components of the body and are specialized to conduct different functions in the body. The central dogma also illustrates the pivotal role of genes in dictating the specialization of cells and subsequent events. Disease can alter the nature of cells thereby interfering with the normal cell functions. I find your case analysis quite intriguing, there are many patients who complain of sore throat that is related to allergic conditions and your analysis through genetic involvement is informative (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,2021).

Group A streptococcus pharyngitis among children and adolescents is common and the identification of the genes associated with the common occurrence provides an avenue for solving the menace. Hypersensitivity relation to genetic composition also provides a better understanding of the recurrence of such cases (McCance & Huether, 2019). I also think that the bod defense system is triggered by recognition of the pathogen and the process of acting against the identified antigen leads to the symptoms, which include inflammation that would be felt as sore throat.

I agree hat the physiological processes upon identification of the antigen includes a variety of cells mediators that take part in the inflammatory pathway. These processes cause heat, swelling and redness. The patient characteristics that define different responses include age as age relates to immunity. Children are more susceptible to some diseases as compared to adults. Elderly people are also prone to some diseases that are not so common among young adults. Allergy to drugs also links to age as the allergy increases with age (Soderholm et al., 2018). I concur with you that severe allergic reaction would definitely be a concern

References

Soderholm, A. T., Barnett, T. C., Sweet, M. J., & Walker, M. J. (2018). Group A streptococcal

pharyngitis: Immune responses involved in bacterial clearance and GAS‐associated immunopathology. Journal of leukocyte biology, 103(2), 193-213.

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in

adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby/Elsevier.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, November 23). Pharyngitis (strep throat): Information for clinicians. Retrieved March 1, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html

Kidney transplant is an effective treatment for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. However, some patients develop adverse effects including kidney rejection. The management of kidney transplant rejection depends on the type and patient factors. Therefore, this paper examines why a patient with acute kidney transplant developed the described symptoms, genes associated with kidney transplant rejection and process of immunosuppression.

Why the Patient Presented the Symptoms Described

The patient presented symptoms that include gaining weight, decreased urinary output, fatigue, and running temperatures up to 101 F. The patient gained weight because of the increased body fluid volume level. The kidneys excrete excess fluids from the body. Impaired kidney function as seen in the case study affects the regulation of fluids in the body, hence, its accumulation and weight gain. The decline in renal function also impaired normal urine output. This led to reduced urine production, as seen in the case study. The rejection altered the normal renal function in the excretion process, leading to oliguria. The kidneys also eliminate toxins from the body. This includes excess ammonia in urine. Impaired kidney problems affect the elimination of these toxins, which lead to symptoms such as fatigue, poor concentration, acidosis, and anemia. Therefore, this explains the patient’s experience of fatigue. Patients with end-stage renal disease and those with kidney transplant rejection problems also experience immunosuppression (Rauen et al., 2020). This predisposes them to infections, hence, the fever that the patient has.

Genes Associated with the Development of the Disease

Genes have been linked with kidney transplant rejection. They include cytochrome p450 2EI (CYP2EI), CYP3A5, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXL8), epoxy hydrolase 2, coagulation factor II thrombin, and coagulation factor V genes. In addition, Forkhead box P3, Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIA, major histocompatibility complex class II, I, DO alpha, and interleukin 1 beta, 2, 2-receptor subunit beta genes also play a role in the development of the rejection in kidney transplant. Genes such as interleukin genes are inflammatory cytokines that inhibits inflammatory processes once a person received an allograft. On the other hand, this gene also downgrades the maturation of antigens and cells that develops host’s immunity following the transplant (Arnold et al., 2022; Spicer & Runkel, 2019; van Vugt et al., 2022). Other genes such as ATP-binding genes increase the body’s resistance towards drugs used in suppressing the immune system following the transplant.

Process of Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression refers to the state in which the ability of the body to fight infections is reduced. The immune system is lowered to a level that it cannot counteract any disease causing organisms from invading the body. The causes of immunosuppression include the use of medications that are used in conditions such as cancer. The other cause is conditions that depress the immune system such as cancer and HIV. Treatments for cancer such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy also cause immunosuppression. The effects of immunosuppression are varied. They include increasing the vulnerability of patients to infections. It also increases costs that patients incur due to frequent hospitalizations (Gupta et al., 2021). Prolonged infections also affect the patients’ quality of life. Patients may also die in cases where the immune system is severely compromised.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the patient presented the symptoms because of reduced renal functioning. Genes are involved in the development of kidney transplant rejection. The rejection may result in immunosuppression, which has negative effects on health.

References

Arnold, M.-L., Heinemann, F. M., Oesterreich, S., Wilde, B., Gäckler, A., Goldblatt, D., Spriewald, B. M., Horn, P. A., Witzke, O., & Lindemann, M. (2022). Correlation of Fc Receptor Polymorphisms with Pneumococcal Antibodies in Vaccinated Kidney Transplant Recipients. Vaccines10(5), Article 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050725

Gupta, R., Woo, K., & Yi, J. A. (2021). Epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease. Seminars in Vascular Surgery34(1), 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2021.02.010

Rauen, T., Wied, S., Fitzner, C., Eitner, F., Sommerer, C., Zeier, M., Otte, B., Panzer, U., Budde, K., Benck, U., Mertens, P. R., Kuhlmann, U., Witzke, O., Gross, O., Vielhauer, V., Mann, J. F. E., Hilgers, R.-D., Floege, J., Floege, J., … Hilgers, R.-D. (2020). After ten years of follow-up, no difference between supportive care plus immunosuppression and supportive care alone in IgA nephropathy. Kidney International98(4), 1044–1052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.046

Spicer, P., & Runkel, L. (2019). Costimulatory pathway targets for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions: Clinical successes, failures, and hope for the future. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs28(2), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2019.1557146

van Vugt, L. K., Schagen, M. R., de Weerd, A., Reinders, M. E., de Winter, B. C., & Hesselink, D. A. (2022). Investigational drugs for the treatment of kidney transplant rejection. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs31(10), 1087–1100. https://doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2022.2130751

NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

You’ve already rated students with this rubric. Any major changes could affect their assessment results.
NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
Main Posting 

 

50 to >44.0 pts

Excellent
Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. … Supported by at least three current, credible sources. … Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
 

44 to >39.0 pts

Good
Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. … Supported by at least three credible sources. … Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
 

39 to >34.0 pts

Fair
Responds to some of the Discussion question(s). … One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. … Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. … Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … Post is cited with two credible sources. … Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. … Contains some APA formatting errors.
 

34 to >0 pts

Poor
Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately. … Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. … Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. … Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … Contains only one or no credible sources. … Not written clearly or concisely. … Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. … Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
50 pts
Main Post: Timeliness 

 

10 to >0.0 pts

Excellent
Posts main post by Day 3.
 

0 pts

Fair
N/A
 

0 pts

Good
N/A
 

0 pts

Poor
Does not post main post by Day 3.
10 pts
First Response 

 

18 to >16.0 pts

Excellent
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. … Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives. … Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. … Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
 

16 to >14.0 pts

Good
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. … Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. … Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
 

14 to >12.0 pts

Fair
Response is on topic and may have some depth. … Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication. … Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. … Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
 

12 to >0 pts

Poor
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. … Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication. … Responses to faculty questions are missing. … No credible sources are cited.
18 pts
Second Response 

 

17 to >15.0 pts

Excellent
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. … Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives. … Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. … Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
 

15 to >13.0 pts

Good
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. … Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. … Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
 

13 to >11.0 pts

Fair
Response is on topic and may have some depth. … Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication. … Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. … Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
 

11 to >0 pts

Poor
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. … Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication. … Responses to faculty questions are missing. … No credible sources are cited.
17 pts
Participation 

 

5 to >0.0 pts

Excellent
Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
 

0 pts

Fair
N/A
 

0 pts

Good
N/A
 

0 pts

Poor
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
5 pts
Total Points: 100