NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
Alterations in Cellular Processes
A 16-year-old boy was diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis at the clinic after a positive strep test. Red patches on the roof of the mouth, inflamed tonsils, white dots on the tonsils and rear of the mouth are all indications of strep throat (Askarian et al, 2019). Tonsilitis (tonsil inflammation) may be because of viral or bacterial or infection. The bacteria that is associated with strep throat infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. The most common way for strep pharyngitis to transmit is from person to person via saliva or nasal discharge.
The role genetics plays in sore throat.
For children with repeated strep throat infections a research found there is a genetic predisposition that causes a poor response to group A strep bacterium immunity (Dan et al, 2019). The children with recurrent tonsillitis were found to have fewer immune cells called B cells in their tonsils. Recurrent tonsillitis may result in tonsillectomy due to overuse of antibiotics to treat it.
Reasons for the patient presenting with the specific symptom.
The patient had swollen tonsils with white exudate, a fever of 99.6, a sore throat, and a reddish pharynx, all of which were symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis. The positive result of strep test was confirmation of streptococcal pharyngitis for the patient.
Inflammation and soreness in the throat are symptoms of strep throat. Some symptoms of the sore throat may be mild but if left untreated, it could result in serious problems like acute rheumatic fever, that raises the risk of heart problems (Beaudoin et al, 2015). Antibiotics are a simple solution for strep throat.
The physiologic response to the stimulus
The patient had been prescribed amoxicillin. After the patient took the medication, there was a physiologic response that manifested as an allergic reaction. The patient experienced swollen lips and tongue, as well as trouble breathing with noticeable wheezing.
The cells that are involved in this process.
After the patient took the amoxicillin (the allergen), the body instantaneously reacted; the immune system produced Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antibody that circulates in the bloodstream to remove the allergen (McCance, 2019). The inflammatory response is triggered by mast cells and basophils. Many receptors specific to the IgE antibody are found in both basophils and mast cells.
Characteristic that may affect sore throat.
Some characteristics may influence the incidence and recovery after sore throat infection. Children are more affected by sore throat than adults. This could be due to the children being in close proximity at daycare or school. According to CDC, the most prevalent bacterial cause of pharyngitis in children is group A strep, which accounts for 20% to 30% of all cases, while in adults, it is thought to cause 5% to 15% of pharyngitis infections (2018). Due to older adults having weak immune response, they may take a longer time to recover after infection than young adults.
Askarian, B., Yoo, S.-C., & Chong, J. W. (2019). Novel Image Processing Method for Detecting Strep Throat (Streptococcal Pharyngitis) Using Smartphone. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 19(15). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/s19153307
Beaudoin, A., Edison, L., Introcaso, C. E., Goh, L., Marrone, J., Mejia, A., & Van Beneden, C. (2015). Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease among children–American Samoa, 2011-2012. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64(20), 555–558.
CDC. (2018). Pharyngitis (Strep Throat). Retrieved, June 1, 2021. From
Dan, J. M., Havenar-Daughton, C., Kendric, K., Al-Kolla, R., Kaushik, K., Rosales, S. L., Anderson, E. L., LaRock, C. N., Vijayanand, P., Seumois, G., Layfield, D., Cutress, R. I., Ottensmeier, C. H., Lindestam Arlehamn, C. S., Sette, A., Nizet, V., Bothwell, M., Brigger, M., & Crotty, S. (2019). Recurrent group A Streptococcus tonsillitis is an immunosusceptibility disease involving antibody deficiency and aberrant TFH cells. Science translational medicine, 11(478), eaau3776. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau3776
McCance, S.H. K (2019). Pathophysiology. [MBS Direct]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323583473/
At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.
Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.
- By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation: NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
- The role genetics plays in the disease.
- Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
- The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
- The cells that are involved in this process.
- How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Week 1 Case Study: NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
The case study assigned is that of a 27 year old male with a history of substance abuse who was found unresponsive by EMS. Patient was unresponsive for an unknown amount of time. Patient became responsive after he was given naloxone by the EMS personnel. Patient noted to have necrotic tissue over greater trochanter and his left forearm after he complained of burning sensation. The patient has prolonged PR interval and peaked T wave. He was also found to have a potassium level of 6.9 mEq/L.
The Role Genetics Pay in Opioid Drug Use
A review of classical genetic studies of opioid use suggests heritability of drug use behavior. However the evidence from molecular genetic studies is inconclusive. Nonetheless, certain genetic variants are important to consider given their role in the pathophysiology of addictive behavior.(Chetna et al,2014). Polymorphisms disrupting the opioid and dopamine systems have been associated with increased risk for developing substance use disorders. Molecular imaging studies have revealed how these polymorphisms impact the brain and contribute to cognitive and behavioral differences across individuals. (Burns et al, 2019). NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
Why is the Patient Presenting with the Specific Symptoms?
The patient in this scenario is experiencing burning sensation because of necrosis in the hip and the forearm. This necrosis may be as a result of opioid IV drug abuse since this practice can lead to the development of necrosis in soft tissues. Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in cell death resulting from internal or external factors such as mechanistic injuries or chemical agents. Necrotic cells cease to function and if necrosis is sufficiently extensive, clinical disease results. If a patient has hyperkalemia, giving naloxone can precipitate arrhythmias and this might have been the case for this patient.. As the patient was given naloxone, the effects of the opioid drugs rapidly wore off causing the patient to go from high pain tolerance to low pain tolerance and thus the reason for the complaints of pain in the hips and forearm. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that reverses coma and respiratory depression caused by opioids.
How would gender change the response?
There is a growing evidence to suggest that men and women are impacted differently by opioid use disorder. The difference between men, women, and gender diverse people are boundless. A study found that women are susceptible to a heightened burden of disease from opioid use disorder. (Reekum et al, 2020). Women are more likely to suffer substance abuse side effects such as liver damage and opioid overdose. Because of this fact, we can conclude that although different genders are impacted differently by opioid use, it would have made no difference in this scenario. NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
Chetna J. Mistry., Monica, B., Dipika, D., David C.M., & Saaman, Z. (2014). Genetics of Opioid Dependence: A Review of the Genetic Contribution to Opioid Dependence. Current Psychiatry Reviews. Retrieved September 03, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155832/
Jamie A. Burns, Danielle S. Kroll, Dana E. Feldman, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E. Wiers, Nora D. Volkow, & Gene-Jack Wang. (2019). Molecular Imaging of Opioid and Dopamine Systems: Insights Into the Pharmacogenetics of Opioid Use Disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10. https://doi-
Van Reekum, E. A., Rosic, T., Hudson, J., Sanger, N., Marsh, D. C., Worster, A., Thabane, L., & Samaan, Z. (2020). Social functioning outcomes in men and women receivi medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Biology of Sex Differences, 11(1), 1–11. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00298-4. NURS 6501 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
Submission and Grading Information
To access your rubric:
Week 1 Discussion Rubric
Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1
To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 1 Discussion
What’s Coming Up in Week 2?
Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images
Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.
To go to the next week:
Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment
One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.
Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.
This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.
- Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
- Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease
Main Post: Timeliness
Total Points: 100