Nsg5003 Advanced Pathophysiology
- Describe cellular metabolism membrane transport and cellular reproduction.
- Describe the aging process. Identify the pathophysiologic process for 3 underlying principles of aging. Example: oxidative process.
Cellular metabolism membrane transport entails a series of processes involved in the movement of cells across membranous barriers. The movement depends on the transmembrane solute concentration, permeability of the membrane, and the size of change of the solute (Howie et al., 2018). Solutes may be ions or small molecules with the membrane deciding which solutes are entering and leaving it. In addition, the movement may be passive or active. Passive transport entails the movement of substances under cellular energy expenditure, while active is the movement of substances using Adenosine triphosphate energy.
Cellular reproduction is the duplication of cells and their content by dividing to yield multiple cells having similar or duplicate content. Cellular reproduction is critical in growth and regeneration. Cellular reproduction may be through mitosis or meiosis. Mitosis is when an individual cell divides into two identical daughter cells, with its primary purpose being the growth and repair of worn-out cells. Meiosis is the process where a cell reproduces by reducing the parent cell’s chromosomes number by half to produce four gamete cells.
The aging process is constituted by changes that occur throughout the human lifespan and reduce an individual’s physiological performance. It affects every system and cell in the body (Lazarus et al., 2018). The aging process is time-dependent and leads to a significant decline in functional properties. In addition, it is characterized by a substantial accumulation of cellular damage as life advances.
Pathophysiological processes for aging include cell senescence, oxidative stress, organ damage, and cognitive impairment. Individuals’ ability to maintain homeostasis under certain conditions is significantly influenced by oxidative stress. Regulatory systems such as the endocrine, immune and nervous systems are significantly affected by chronic oxidative stress, increasing age-related morbidity, and mortality (Liguori et al., 2018). Substantial cell loss and regenerative capacity occur, which with time alter the body functioning leading to death. Cognitive impairment affects the quality of life in the elderly. It includes progressive loss in memory and increased dementia.
Howie, D., Ten Bokum, A., Necula, A. S., Cobbold, S. P., & Waldmann, H. (2018). The role of lipid metabolism in T lymphocyte differentiation and survival. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 1949. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01949
Lazarus, N. R., & Harridge, S. D. (2018). The inherent human aging process and the facilitating role of exercise. Frontiers in physiology, 9, 1135.https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01135
Liguori, I., Russo, G., Curcio, F., Bulli, G., Aran, L., Della-Morte, D., … & Abete, P. (2018). Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clinical interventions in aging, 13, 757. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927356/
Olivi, L., Berger, M., Creyghton, R. N., De Franceschi, N., Dekker, C., Mulder, B. M., … & van der Oost, J. (2021). Towards a synthetic cell cycle. Nature communications, 12(1), 1-11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-24772-8