NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning
Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.
Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning
According to Schultze-Lutter, Schmidt & Theodoridou (2018), Psychopathology is a scientific exploration of abnormal mental states that, for over a century, has provided Gestalt for psychiatric conditions and guided clinical and scientific progress in the current psychiatry. Numerous factors can influence the development of Psychopathology.
Biological Factor (Genetic and Neuroscientific)
Individual differences in genetic effect have a considerable part to play in shaping human behavior (O’Donnell & Meaney., 2020). Similarly, the practitioners have established that particular neural substrates differ from one individual to another, clarifying diverse behavioral processes in individuals. These same differences may predict the susceptibility of individuals to neuropsychiatric conditions like anxiety and depression. For this reason, scientists have sought to comprehend the connection between the brain, genes, and specific behavior to explain differences in behavior and consequent psychiatric illnesses.
Genetics and neuroscientific factors influence the development of psychopathology as disorders such as depression, bipolar, panic disorders, schizophrenia and may others can be heritable. These disorders have an underlying genetic structure that illustrates the sharing of risk factors which are heritable across the psychiatric disorders. There are also genetic studies that shows variations which occur in the embryo and later develop to these disorders.
Psychological Factor (Behavioral and Cognitive Processes, Emotional, Developmental)
Psychological factors contribute to development, maintenance, or recurrence of psychopathological situations. These might include cognitive impairments, biases, or dysfunctional beliefs. The cognitive dysfunctions are closely connected to emotional and relational processes that might contribute to specific psychopathological disorders or symptoms.
These psychological factors influence the development of psychopathology in various ways. Emotional trauma such as childhood traumas can cause disorders such as depression. The behavior of people can also influence such disorders like anxiety. Cognitive processes such delusional states and hallucinations can also influence the development of schizophrenia.
Social, Cultural, and Interpersonal Factors
There has been an extensive research in role completed by social, cultural, and interpersonal factors towards the development of psychopathology (Dworkin, Brill & Ullman., 2019). Most of them have concentrated on stress and other factors that change the impact of stress. Arguably, the world is multicultural, meaning that individuals grow up in diverse cultural backgrounds. For example, in a specific society, the cases of individuals attacked by the evil spirits that whisper and attach individuals rendering them immobile, may be well-thought-out as usual and understandable. In Western or American society, however, these are indications of schizophrenia. Thus, it’s vital considering cultural, social, and interpersonal factors because they shape how individuals, society, family, perceive mental disorders.
Social, cultural and interpersonal factors can influence how people think, feel, relate and behave while interacting socially. This is caused by cultural believes and social environment and this can lead to the development of psychopathology. Culture and social circles may also influence psychotic patients respond to treatments.
Dworkin, E. R., Brill, C. D., & Ullman, S. E. (2019). Social reactions to disclosure of interpersonal violence and psychopathology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 72, 101750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2019.101750
O’Donnell, K. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2020). Epigenetics, development, and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 16, 327-350. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095530
Schultze-Lutter, F., Schmidt, S. J., & Theodoridou, A. (2018). Psychopathology—a precision tool in need of re-sharpening. Frontiers in psychiatry, 446. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00446