Assignment 6: Nanotechnology and Implications for Health Care
1. Access the Nano.gov web site. Click on Nanotechnology 101 and read about, what it is and how it works. Then click on Nanotechnology and You and review the 6 subsections.
2. After reading and studying information about nanotechnology, outline a research study question that measures the impact of nanotechnology in health information technology.
3. Case Study. Find the case study on page 608, Chapter 25, of your textbook and answer the following questions.
1. How would you use the bioethical checklist recommended by Bennett and Naranja to address this situation? (See
Bennett, M. G., & Naranja, R. J. (2013). Getting nano tattoos right – a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology. Semantic Scholar.
2. What ethical principles are at play within this scenario?
3. How might you educate the patient on what nanotechnology is and how it works to alleviate concerns?
4. What common treatments for smoking cessation and cardiac disease might you use to compare the tattoo treatment to and to explain how nanotechnology works?
Write a 5 page paper using APA 7 format and be sure to cite your source. Include a conclusion and reference page.
Outline a Research Study Question that Measures the Impact of Nanotechnology in Health Information Technology
What is the impact of nanotechnology in the remote monitoring of patients with cardiovascular disease?
How would you use the bioethical checklist recommended by Bennett and Naranja to address this situation?
The checklist provided by Bennett and Naranja focuses on factors that address bioethical, legal, and system design issues that have previously hindered new technologies from benefiting the communities once they are introduced. The physician should use the checklist to address the patient’s legal and bioethical concerns by explaining the seven essential factors when considering new medical technology. Bennet and Naranja outlined these factors in their checklists and explained how they relate to the nano tattoos. Therefore, the physician should use the checklist to systematically explain to the patient why nano tattoos are safe for use and dispel the movie image in the patient’s mind (Bennet & Naranja, 2013).
As a physician, I would explain the patent scope and explain that nano tattoos are narrowly tailored only to detect blood glucose levels and do not perform other functions. Therefore, the patient should not be worried if they are being used as experiments by the manufacturers or the government to control or monitor other body functions or spy on the patient. I would also explain to the patient that the nano tattoos are currently not covered by several patents, which is a common practice. Therefore they are likely to be rapidly developed and adopted as the standard treatment procedures in the management of diabetes; hence the patient will not need an experiment. Instead, he will be a pioneer in using the new technology. I would also explain the beneficence factor to the patient; this should include the potential benefits he will experience by adopting the new technology, such as decreased episodes of hyperglycemia as the tattoo can promptly detect blood glucose levels and facilitate initiation of interventions promptly. The patient will experience improved comfort since he will no longer use the stick method to prick the finger to measure glucose levels. I would also address privacy concerns, the patient is likely to be concerned about who has access to the health information, and therefore I would remind and reassure the patient that the health information is protected and regulated by several laws and should not be concerned about the privacy of his health data (Bennet & Naranja, 2013).
What ethical principles are at play within this scenario?
Some of the ethical principles at play in the scenario include informed consent. The principle requires the patient to make a free choice after receiving relevant data concerning the procedure has been presented and explained. Informed consent requires that the patient first understand the information provided concerning the procedure; if the patient cannot comprehend the information, the right to choose can be transferred to another person, primarily close family members or partners. The patient should then receive full disclosure about the proposed medical procedure, after which the care provider should assess to ensure they correctly understand the procedure. The patient should then be allowed to decide whether to have the procedure or not voluntarily. Based on the comment after the physician left the room, it is likely that the patient did not fully understand the disclosure about the nano tattoo, and therefore he is comparing it to a movie that he had previously watched (Varkey, 2021).
Beneficence, the principle requires that care providers act in a way that benefits the patient; this can include promoting moral rules to defend the rights of others remove conditions that cause pain and harm to the patients. This principle aims to ensure that care providers engage in actions that promote the welfare of their patients or improve the current conditions. The main aim is to ensure that care providers conform to moral values. In this case, the physician advises the patient to adopt an improved treatment/management procured rather than routine care management practices. The nano tattoo is an improved management technology that can improve the patient’s quality of life by ensuring prompt detection of the blood glucose levels, decreasing the incidences of hyperglycemia, hence other related complications. By encouraging the patient to adopt the new technology, the physician aims to improve the quality of life for the patient by assisting the patient to avoid the downfalls associated with the current practice (Varkey, 2021).
Non-nonmaleficence; requires that care providers do not engage in procedures and activities that can harm the patient or deny the patient a high quality of life. This requires the physician to weigh all the interventions available, taking into account their advantages or disadvantages to ensure that procedures that are the least burdensome for the patient are selected. In this scenario, the use of nano tattoos to manage diabetes offers the most benefits compared to the standard procedures, and the disadvantages are also likely to be fewer than the standard procedures. Therefore, the physician chooses the procedure with the most negligible disadvantages and most benefits (Varkey, 2021).
How might you educate the patient on nanotechnology and how it works to alleviate concerns?
I would begin by explaining to the patient about nanotechnology. I would explain that nano is a measurement scale that represents 1-billionth of a meter, and therefore nanotechnology involves the use of tiny molecules to achieve the desired outcomes. At the nano, scale substances have altered properties, making them capable of metabolite sensing, biocompatibility, and altered states of how they interact with other molecules in the body. Nano tattoo, therefore, utilizes similar technology where nanoparticles are introduced under the skin and react differently to various blood glucose levels. When the blood glucose is higher particles, the nanoparticles will react by emitting specific colors, which can then be measured by an external device to determine the accurate level of blood glucose (Meetoo et al., 2019).
I would explain to the patient that the nano tattoo involves a biocompatible component that is made of nanoparticles that will be placed under their skin, and when the blood glucose level is high, the particles will react by emitting specific colors that will be measured using an external device which the patient has to hold over the skin where the tattoo was placed. The patient does not have to worry about the adverse reactions since extensive research has been conducted on the biocompatible materials used to ensure that they do not cause any negative interactions with other molecules in the body. Hence, he should not worry about negative interactions or other physical discomforts. I would also inform the patient that the particles will be shed with the skin over time, so he does not have to worry about the particles being carried to other sensitive organs (Jain & Saxena, 2021).
I would also educate the benefits of using the nano tattoo compared to the current standard procedures, such as pricking the fingers. The patient will continuously monitor glucose levels with a nano tattoo, which is vital in avoiding hyperglycemia and related complications. The patient will not be required to prick the fingers to measure the glucose level, which will improve comfort. The chances of missing a reading will decrease since the nano tattoo will provide 24-hour monitoring (Meetoo et al., 2019).
What common treatments for smoking cessation and cardiac disease might you use to compare the tattoo treatment?
Smoking cessation and cardiac disease treatments that can be compared to nano tattoo include nicotine replacement therapy such as nicotine patches. The patient willing to quit smoking must place the patch on their skin to release the nicotine into the blood system. However, without other harmful chemicals in cigarettes, the individual gradually reduces the use of the patches as they recover from decreasing the amount of nicotine they are receiving, and eventually, terminate their use once they recover (Lindson et al., 2019). In cardiac diseases, a similar procedure would be balloon angioplasty. The procedure is used to restore the narrowed or blocked arteries. A balloon attached to a catheter is inserted into the blocked or narrowed artery and inflated around the narrowed region. A stent is then inserted to keep the artery open and functional (Stanford Health Care, 2022).
Nano tattoo works in an almost similar manner. The nano tattoo treatment involves the insertion of biocompatible molecules under the patient’s skin. The nanoparticles are designed to emit specific lights when glucose levels are high. The patient will then be required to scan for the light with a device to determine the glucose level in the blood (Meetoo et al., 2019).
Bennet, M., G. & Naranja R. J., (2013) Getting nano tattoos right—a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology https://repository.library.northeastern.edu/files/neu:332833/fulltext.pdf
Jain, U., & Saxena, K. (2021). Smart Nanobiosensors. In Nanosensors for Smart Manufacturing (pp. 231-245). Elsevier. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128233580000125
Lindson, N., Chepkin, S. C., Ye, W., Fanshawe, T. R., Bullen, C., & Hartmann‐Boyce, J. (2019). Different doses, durations, and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4). https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013308/full
Meetoo, D., Wong, L., & Ochieng, B. (2019). Smart tattoo: technology for monitoring blood glucose in the future. British Journal of Nursing, 28(2), 110-115. https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.2.110
Stanford Health Care, (2022) Angioplasty – Balloon Angioplasty Retrieved from: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/a/angioplasty/types/balloon-angioplasty.html
Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17-28. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/509119