List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from organisms in the other two Eukaryotic kingdoms.

List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from organisms in the other two Eukaryotic kingdoms.

List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from organisms in the other two Eukaryotic kingdoms. 150 150 Nyagu

BIOLOGY 240 |UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE KINGDOM FUNGI Reading: Solomon Chapter 29 Define the following terms: hyphae mycelium septa aseptate karyogamy sporangia ascocarp spore basidium plasmogamy basidiocarp saprobic fungi lichen mycorrhizae gills mold parasitic fungi mutualistic fungi dikaryotic Answer the following questions: 1. List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from organisms in the other two Eukaryotic kingdoms. 2. Provide evidence to support the hypothesis that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. 3. Explain the process by which fungi acquire their nutrients. In what ways are fungi well adapted to their environment? 4. Describe the basic body plan of a mold. 5. In what ways do fungi impact humans? (economic and otherwise) 6. What is a dikaryon? What advantages are there to a dikaryotic state? 7. What characteristics are used to classify Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota? List some common examples of each. 8. Describe and draw the asexual and sexual reproduction cycles in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. 9. What roles do fungi play in the environment? POPULATION GENETICS Reading: Solomon Chapter 19 Define the following terms: population Natural selection Gene flow microevolution Genetic drift mutation Founder effect Bottleneck effect Answer the following questions: 10. Draw a graphical representation to show how the following types of selection can change the distribution of phenotypes in a population: Stabilizing, directional, disruptive. Provide an example of each. 11. How does genetic drift change the allelic frequency of a population? 12. Does genetic drift have a more drastic effect on large or small populations? 13. What is the difference between bottleneck effect and founder effect? 14. How does the bottleneck effect alter the genetic biodiversity of a population? How does this affect conservation efforts for endangered species (think of the cheetah or California condor)? COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Reading: Solomon Chapters 52.6 53.1-53.4; Chapter 54, 55.1, pp. 1197-8 and 55.2 and p. 1213 (burning) Define the following terms: Ecology community K-selected species r-selected species population Keystone species biodiversity disturbance niche Invasive species Species diversity Flagship species Food web/Trophic system umbrella species succession Species richness autotrophs heterotrophs Food chain Primary producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer Answer the following questions: 15. What are abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem? 16. Provide an example of a K-selected and an r-selected species. How does each species type contribute to biodiversity? 17. With intermediate levels of disturbance, who gets the advantage (K-or r-selected)? –Think of what happens after a low fuel burning fire. 18. Describe and provide an example of the following types of symbiosis: 1. Predator/Prey Interactions (+/-) 2. Parasitism (+/-) 3. Mutualism (+/+) 4. Commensalism (+/0) 5. Amensalism (-/0) 19. Be able to describe a food web and determine which trophic level each organism is at/trophic level. 20. How does intermediate disturbance increase biodiversity? 21. How does the removal or addition of a tertiary consumer affect biodiversity and ecosystem health? A secondary consumer? 22. Describe the carbon cycle, human impacts on this cycle and Global Climate Change. 23. Compare/contrast species richness with species diversity. What is a high Shannon Diversity Index number (measure of species diversity) (Hs)? 24. What are the biological benefits to interval fires as a land management technique such as that used by the Kumeyaay (think of a mosaic patterning of succession)? 25. Compare a realized and fundamental niche. How does the Competitive Exclusion Principle explain this? EVOLUTION, CLASSIFICATION AND DOMAIN EUKARYA| “PROTISTS” TERMS TO DEFINE in your own words Evolution Population Species Vestigial cladogram Eukaryote homoplasy Natural selection Convergent evolution Adaptation monophyletic Homology allopatric speciation sympatric speciation ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. Why is it incorrect to say “individuals evolve”, but it is correct to say “populations evolve”? 2. Why are only inherited variations important in the evolutionary process? 3. How do homologous and homoplastic (analogous) features provide evidence of evolution? What are specific examples of each? 4. Draw a tree, showing the 3 domains of life. How is a prokaryote different from a eukaryote? Label the cell types and adaptations on your cladogram. 5. List and briefly describe the different supergroups in Domain Eukarya. Why are supergroups used? a. Under the microscope, identify: foraminifera, paramecium and their corresponding supergroup and adaptations placing within supergroup; b. Identify the supergroups for Kingdom Plantae, Fungi and Animalia 6. Understand what “descent with modification” means and how this applies to studying organisms. Be able to describe natural selection as a mechanism of evolution and apply it to the different adaptations seen in Kingdom Plantae, Animalia and Fungi. PLANT EVOLUTION TERMS TO DEFINE in your own words sporophyte archegonium eudicot antheridium pollination angiosperm xylem phloem ovule seed gametophyte stomata ovary Endosperm monocot embryophyte cone ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. What is the role fungi played in the evolution of Kingdom Plantae? 2. What organism is believed to be the ancestor to Kingdom Plantae? What characteristics do land plants share with their freshwater ancestor? What are derived characteristics that enabled members of Kingdom Plantae to colonize land? 3. Identify the gametophyte and sporophyte of the following phyla (common names provided below). Be able to provide key innovations that allow each phylum to move further from water (think of transport and reproductive structures): a. Mosses b. Ferns c. Conifers d. Flowering Plants 4. How did the presence of bryophytes and ancient vascular plants change the ecology of the Earth? How is this different than the ecological changes seen over the past 200 years? 5. Identify and contrast monocots and eudicots of Phylum Anthophyta. 6. Define coevolution and pollination syndrome. How has the evolution of angiosperms influenced the evolution of insects? ANIMAL EVOLUTION TERMS TO DEFINE in your own words exoskeleton choanoflagellate medusa Hydrostatic skeleton monophyletic Gastrovascular cavity Visceral mass Septa Cuticle ecdysis polyp coelum Mantle setae tagmata endokeleton acoelumate psuedocoelmate metanephridia Sexual dimorphism ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. Describe the three types of symmetry. List the animal phyla according to symmetry and relate symmetry to cephalization. 2. Identify key characteristics of Kingdom Animalia as they relate to different phyla and evolutionary relationships. 3. For each animal phylum, be able to identify and describe key characteristics that place the organism in that phylum. 4. Be able to classify an unknown animal into the correct phylum and describe the key characteristics used to identify the animal. For the following phyla, know/identify the classes: Mollusca (snails, clams, octopus) Arthropoda (subphlya and classes for spiders and insects), Chordata -Subphylum Vertebrata, correct class names for: a. Cartilaginous fish b. Boney fish c. Amphibians d. Reptiles e. Mammals 5. Know adaptations that are lost or gained when an organism has a parasitic lifestyle (think of worm phyla). 6. Describe the difference between an open versus closed circulatory system. Using Phylum Mollusca, relate lifestyle to the type of circulatory system. 7. Advantages (and disadvantages) of sexual reproduction as it relates to evolution. Compare to asexual reproduction. 8. Identify the three different types of asexual reproduction in animals and provide an example. Kingdom Fungi Chapter 29 Key Concepts — Describe key characteristics of fungi — Understand the structure of the fungal body, its growth form, and the cells that make up its composition — Explain how fungi obtain nutrients from living and nonliving sources — Summarize the reproductive cycle of fungi and how they use spores for reproduction and dispersal – both asexual and sexual — Understand and classification of three major phyla Fungi ¢Diverse and widespread ¢Essential for the well being of terrestrial (land) ecosystems WHY? ¢Benefit humans ¢Cause diseases, molds Kingdom Fungi — Fungi are closely related to animals — Both heterotrophic — Both use absorptive nutrition — Both store surplus food as the carbohydrate glycogen — Early lineages of fungi had flagella Kingdom Fungi — Roles in Ecosystems: — Saprobes feed on organic remains (major decomposers in ecosystems) — Symbionts, — harmless or beneficial — parasites Nuclearia sp. Explosive Spore Ejection of the Hat-Thrower Fungus Hat-thrower fungus adapted to live in the digestive system of cattle and on cow dung Digestive system of a cow Cow dung Explosive Spore Ejection of the Hat-Thrower Fungus Hat-thrower fungus • Grow mycelium which spread throughout the dung • Create spores in a spore stalk • Spores are violently ejected up to 6 feet by water pressure in the spore sac Explosive Spore Ejection of the Hat-Thrower Fungus Light Spore Pilobolus sac Hypha Spore Growth Enzymes Photoreceptor Light Stalk AbsorptionDigestion Mycelium Dung Spore sac Two Basic Forms: Filaments and Single Cells • 99% of fungi are filamentous – they are composed of thin microscopic cellular filaments called hyphae • ~1% of fungi are yeasts – they exist as single cells Fungi Grow as Single Cells Yeasts are single-celled fungi: • Digest and absorb simple sugars • Reproduce mainly by asexual budding Daughter cell Developing bud Bud Nucleus Mitochondria Golgi complex Vesicles Cell wall Plasma membrane Vacuole Single Celled Yeast A. Haploid yeast cells budding B. Haploid cells forming shmoos and zygotes C. Zygote budding off diploid D. Diploid budding E. Diploid forming asci with ascospores; freed haploid spores pub.ucsf.edu Fungi Grow as Multicelled Filaments Filamentous fungi Fruiting body Spores Mycelium Fungi Grow as Filaments Hyphae Cross wall Growth at tip Fungal cells: — Have a cell wall — Cell wall is composed of chitin Fungi Grow as Filaments CrossNuclearNucleolus Endoplasmic Ribosomes Lipid Cell wall envelope reticulum body wall Nucleus Plasma membrane Vacuole Vesicles Cytoskeleton Glycogen storage vesicle MitochondrionCytoplasm Golgi complex Unique Cell Wall Chemistry — Fungal cells enclosed by tough cell walls composed of chitin — Cannot engulf food by phagotrophy due to rigid cell walls — Cell wall also restricts mobility of nonflagellate cells Unique Body Plan — In multicelled species — Spores germinate, give rise to filaments (hyphae) — Filaments grow into extensive mesh (mycelium) https://eapbiofield.wikispaces.com Septate Fungi vs. Aseptate Fungi Unmated Hyphae vs. Mated Hyphae Distinctive Growth Processes — Mycelia can grow quickly when food is plentiful — Grow at the edges — Narrow dimensions and extensive branching provides high surface area for absorption — Osmosis important in growth- entry of water produces force for tip extension Which fungal growth form consists of a branching network that generates a large surface area? A. Yeast B. Fruiting body C. Mycelium Fungal Ecology — Decomposer fungi are essential component’s of the Earth’s ecosystems — Work with bacteria — Release minerals to the soil and water Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi are heterotrophs- they gain energy and nutrients from other organisms Fungi can act as: • Decomposers • Predators • Parasites • Pathogens • Mutualists Saprophytic Fungi Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungal predators, parasites and pathogens — Predators- acquire energy by capture, killing and consuming another organism — Parasites- acquire energy and nutrients from living hosts without killing them — Pathogen- a parasite that causes disease, with specific symptoms Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi can obtain nutrients from living hosts and from nonliving substrates Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi can obtain nutrients from living hosts and from nonliving substrates Some fungi are predators trapping tiny soil nematodes Predatory Ascomycota Fungal Pathogens — 5000 species cause serious crop diseases — Rust spores can be spread on the wind or by other means — Several human diseases — Dermatophytes – athlete’s foot, ringworm — Pneomocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS Fungal Pathogens: Chytrid Frogs are secondary consumers. If this consumer is lost, what is the consequence the trophic structure of the community? Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi require water to break down macromolecules by hydrolysis Long-chained macromolecule Enzyme (protein) Enzyme (protein) Enzyme (protein) Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi exchange nutrients with Photosynthetic partners — Photosynthetic partner produces sugars — Fungal partner provides water, minerals, protection — Mycorrhiza- mutualism between fungi and roots of plants Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Fungi exchange nutrients with Photosynthetic partners — Lichens- fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria Algal layer Fungal mycelium Substrate Mutualism: Lichens — Fungal symbiotic relationship with either a cyanobacterium or a green alga — Often the first to colonize harsh habitats like bare rock Mutualistic Fungi: Mycorrhizae Mutualistic Fungi: Mycorrhizae Mutualistic Fungi: Endophytes • Inhabits plant leaves or other plant parts, except the roots, without harming the host plant. • Provide their host plants with: • useful protection from pathogens • can increase the host plant’s tolerance for heat, drought, or even heavy metals. Mutualistic Fungi: Cultivating a Fungi Farm Leaf-cutter ants use the specialized digestive abilities of fungi to assist them to process leaves that they could not digest otherwise Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Decomposers: — Obtain nutrients by breaking down nonliving substrates — Fungi must have the correct enzymes to break down the substrate — Pathogenic fungi can switch to decomposing once the host has died Fruiting body Relate these two strategies to obtain nutrients to evolution Fungi Obtain Nutrients from Living and Nonliving Sources Decomposers Substrate w/water Fungus Gene expression Gene 1 Enzyme 1 Gene 2 Enzyme 2 Gene 3 Enzyme 3 DNA Breaks Breaks Breaks Chemical bond 1 Chemical bond 2 Chemical bond 3 Macromolecule Which term best describes the relationship between the fungi and green algae that form lichens? A. Predator- prey B. Commensalism C. Mutualism D. Parasite- host Fungi Reproduce by Making and Dispersing Spores — Spores are reproductive cells released by fungi — The term mold refers to simple fungi that release large quantities of spores – example: Aspergillus Fungi Reproduce by Making and Dispersing Spores Spores — Specialized structures for asexual or sexual reproduction — Asexual spores are produced by mitosis – example: Apergillus Asexual Reproduction Fungi Reproduce by Making and Dispersing Spores Spores — Sexual spores are produced by meiosis — The fruiting body is where sexual reproduction occurs Sexual Reproduction — Involves mating of gametes, zygote formation and meiosis — Most gametes are inconspicuous fungal branches — Fuse with compatible mating type ¢ Nuclei may remain separate for a long time ¢ Gamete nuclei divide at each cell division producing dikaryotic mycelium or heterokaryon — Functionally diploid Fruiting Bodies — Heterokaryotic mycelium may produce a fleshy fruiting body — All cells of the fruiting body are dikaryotic — When mature, the 2 nuclei in cells will fuse — Produces zygotes (only diploid stage) — Undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores Fairy ring. © Darrell D. Hensley. Structure of fruiting bodies varies in ways that reflect adaptations for spore dispersal by wind, rain or animals. — Many fungi produce substances in the fruiting body to deter consumption — Toxins can cause liver failure requiring a transplant — Hallucinogenic or psychoactive substances Edible vs. Non-edible Fungi Fungi Reproduce by Making and Dispersing Spores Spores can be dispersed by: — Water pressure — Rain — Animals — Wind Mold spores that cause allergies in humans are generally _________ produced. A. Sexually B. Asexually Fungi Produce Potent Toxins, Antibiotics, and Ethanol Death’s cap mushrooms cause 90% of mushroom poisoning fatalities in the US Toxins in the fruiting body interfere with protein synthesis in the liver and kidneys, causing organ failure Fungi Produce Potent Toxins, Antibiotics, and Ethanol Fungal toxins are diverse: — Psilocybe mushrooms- used by shamans — Ergot fungus- used to make ergotamines, medicine for migraines — Aspergillus fungus- releases aflatoxins which poison the liver Infected grains Fungi Produce Potent Toxins, Antibiotics, and Ethanol Fungi make antibiotics that inhibit their microbial competitors Antibiotics target the synthesis of particular structures in bacterial cells, which is why they do not work against viruses. Fungi Produce Potent Toxins, Antibiotics, and Alcoholic fermentation Ethanol • Yeasts ferment sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide without oxygen Fungi Produce Potent Toxins, Antibiotics, and Ethanol Alcoholic fermentation Anaerobic metabolism (oxygen not required) Fermentation Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 Ethanol Cytoplasm 2 5 Fungal Phyla ¢ Chytridiomycota ¢ Zygomycota ¢ Glomeromycota ¢ Ascomycota ¢ Basidiomycota Overview of Fungi Reproduction Zygomycota — Aseptate hyphae — Produces asexual spores in sporangia — Named for zygospore produced sexually — Zygospore undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores — Most are saprobes in soil — Some are parasites Zygomycota: Zygote Fungi — Include molds that grow on foods (fruits, breads) — A few species are dangerous pathogens Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Glomeromycota — Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi — Aseptate hyphae •Only asexual reproduction using unusually large multinucleate spores •Ability of early plants to live on land may have depended on help from fungal associations Ascomycota — Unique sporangia called asci — Produce sexual spores called ascospores — Asci produced on fruiting bodies called ascocarps — Occur in terrestrial and aquatic habitats Ascomycota — The most diverse group — Single-celled yeasts and multicelled species haploid spore in ascus Life Cycle: Ascomycota — Many sac fungi produce asexual spores at the tip of a specialized hypha — Sexual spores are produced in asci — In multicelled sac fungi, asci form on an ascocarp — Ascocarps can become large because their hyphae contain reinforcing cross-walls — Helps survive in dry habitats Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Basidiomycota — Most recently evolved group of fungi — Important decomposers and mycorrhizal partners — Produce mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, shelf fungi, rusts and smuts as fruiting bodies Basidiomycota — Named for basidia that produce sexual spores called basidiospores — Fruiting bodies called basidiocarps — Clamp connections help distribute nuclei during cell division — Reproduce asexually by various types of spores ASTRAEUS HYGROMETRICUS Life Cycle: Basidiomycota ¢ Dikaryotic mycelium dominates the life cycle — Grows by mitosis, can extend through a vast volume of soil…
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