(Answered) Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory

(Answered) Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory

(Answered) Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory 150 150 Prisc

Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory

Write about “Leininger’s cultural care Diversity and Universality Theory”. Respond to each of the following prompts
Provide a description of the theory and the level of abstraction.
Describe two or three circumstances or practice areas in which the theory would be applicable or relevant to the professional nursing practice, education, research, or the theoretical advancement of nursing as a science.

Sample Answer 

Description of the Theory and the Level of Abstraction

The diversity and universality theory by Madeleine Leininger focuses on knowledge and understanding different cultures as they relate to nursing, health and illness caring practices, values beliefs to facilitate the provision of efficacious and meaningful nursing care. The theory emphasizes that different cultures have different health values and illness values, beliefs, and caring behaviors. The theory is also referred to as transcultural theory and is made of major concepts and sub-concepts. One of the major concepts of the theory is culturally congruent care, which refers to as cognitively based supportive, assistive or facilitative decision and acts tailored to fit the values, beliefs, and ways of life an individual, group, or institution for beneficial, supportive and satisfactory health care services (Gonzalo, 2021). The nurses have the responsibility of providing culturally competent and holistic care for better patient outcomes. The theory was formulated after Leininger observed that the behavior exhibited by children in the guidance home consisted of recurrent behavioral patterns from their cultural background. According to the theory, there are three major modes of guiding the judgment of nurses to provide meaningful care. They include cultural preservation, accommodation, and restructuring.

The theory is classified as a high middle-range theory based on the degree of specificity and level of abstraction. It is not a grand theory because the theory has a particular dimension for assessing a total picture. The theory has a comprehensive and holistic approach that leads to a broad application of the theory in nursing practice that is more than the traditional expectations of a middle-range theory hence a reductionist approach. The theory provides the nurses with an avenue of providing care harmoniously through the application of the values, beliefs, and practices of the patients.


One instance where the transcultural theory can apply to the nursing practice involves managing chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and the management of risk factors such as obesity. Care related to chronic illnesses requires the patient to have an active role in adherence to medication and lifestyle changes. Understanding the values, beliefs, and practices of patients and how they impact their lifestyle promotes patient participation, improving patient outcomes. The healthcare providers will be able to develop strategies that fit the individual needs of patients. In managing type two diabetes, studies indicate that culturally competent interventions structured and encompassing religion, culture, and health literacy skills tailored to meet individual needs improve diabetes health-related outcomes among the minority ethnic and racial groups (Zeh et al., 2016).

The theory could be applicable in end-of-life care since cultural beliefs, experiences, and values shape the patient’s definition of dignity and death. In some cultures, death is treated with utmost reverence. Others celebrate life while others fear death. According to research findings, cultural background influences palliative care decisions (Givler, Bhatt, & Maani-Fogelman, 2020). Nurses should therefore offer culturally sensitive care to meet the needs of patients and families.

In nursing research, the theory can be used to generate evidence-based interventions to generate solutions to health problems affecting individuals, groups, and communities. This may include strategies focusing on increasing access to care, educating the public, and promoting overall health. The communities are more likely to respond to strategies that incorporate their values, beliefs, and practices. One strategy is health promotion interventions.

With the increasing focus on quality care, culturally competent care is essential to patients. Nurses need to attain cultural competence. Leininger’s theory can be used as a framework in nursing practice and education to support culturally competent care.


  • Givler, A., Bhatt, H., & Maani-Fogelman, P. A. (2020). The Importance of Cultural Competence in Pain and Palliative Care. Statpearls [Internet].
  • Gonzalo, A (2021). Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Theory. Retrieved from https://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger-transcultural-nursing-theory/
  • Zeh, P., Sandhu, H. K., Cannaby, A. M., Warwick, J., & Sturt, J. A. (2016). Exploring Culturally Competent Primary Care Diabetes Services: A Single‐City Survey. Diabetic Medicine33(6), 786-793.