Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring

Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring

Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring 150 150 Peter

Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring


Students should select any nursing theory explored in this class for this assignment.

The student should define the theory with a reference and discuss how the theory relates to their philosophy of nursing.

Please provide four references.

The paper should be at least three and no more than five pages in length.

The title and reference pages are not a part of the three – five-page count but should be included in the paper.

Please format the paper according to the following headings.

These headings should appear in your paper.

Introduction & Brief Summary

See the previous assignments for the components of a good introduction. Describe the selected theory with a reference.

Applying Theory to Practice :

Discuss two ways that you could use the theory in nursing practice (list two references)

Advantages of Theory

Discuss the advantages of using the chosen theory to support clinical practice (list one reference)

Theory and Patient Education

Discuss the value of using the theory to support patient education.


A reasonable conclusion includes two paragraphs. No references are required.

Sample Paper

Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring

Nursing theories act as bodies of knowledge that define nursing the practices and significance of nurse practitioners in the promotion of health. Nursing theories have defined and differentiated nursing as a distinctive discipline that is detached from other healthcare fields. The utilization of nursing theories has served as a foundation of the policies that direct nursing practice and patient care. The linkages of nursing theories have made it clear how nursing knowledge can be utilized in the promotion of health and improved patient-centred care regardless of the healthcare setting. This paper will focus on Jean Watson theory of human caring which is vital to nursing practice and the promotion of better care. Jean Watson theory is a core caring theory that encompasses the whole world of nursing with a major focus on interpersonal processes between the care recipient and caregiver.

Jean Watson Theory

Jean Watson Theory developed the philosophy of caring, which highlighted the humanistic aspect of nursing through intertwining nursing practice and scientific knowledge (Alharbi and Baker, 2020). The four major concepts of the theory include health, human, nursing and environment. Watson believed that these are the major concepts in the promotion of better care. For instance, health focuses on the high overall mental, physical and social function of an individual. Nursing should be concerned with preventing illness, promoting health and caring for individuals to restore health. The theory has outlined nursing processes that are similar to the scientific research process, which includes assessing, planning, intervening and evaluating. Therefore, Watson’s theory addresses the process of care provision and how the caring process leads to improved health strategies to enable the patients to improve their health condition.

Application of Jean Watson in Nursing Practice

The human caring theory is applied in the nursing practice and care process through the carative factors. The theory has ten carative factors that demonstrate the utilization of the theory as a practice of authenticity, loving-kindness, equanimity, cultivating, enabling and developing of a relationship that is helping-trusting, allowing the expression of negative and positive feelings and creating an enabling environment that can promote healing and care for the basic needs of the patient.

Watson’s theory of human caring has been applied in nursing practice to offer supportive care for positive health results. Nurse practitioners have engaged their emotions in the caring process while paying attention to the health and physical needs of the patient (Norman and Rossillo, 2016). For instance, nurses are able to listen to the patients and pay attention to the caring process to support the patient. Transpersonal caring has been effective in offering compassionate care and easing the families’ and patients’ suffering. Through a holistic approach to care in the nursing practice, patients have had faith and hope elements that make them feel empowered, valued and in control of the decision making, which heightens the life quality.

Jean Watson theory has also been used in relationship management between the patient and nurse in the nursing practice. The theory has shown that quality care is beneficial to both the patient and care giver. Ideally, Willis and DM (2017) states that one of the carative factors focuses on the development of a helping trust relationship. Therefore, the theory has enabled nurses to develop a transpersonal caring relationship that facilitates caring of human relations. The theory has encouraged nurses to engage spiritually and authentically with the patients and families, which facilitates a more positive encounter with the healthcare environment. For instance, in adult care, nurses have been able to rely on a human caring process that is performed through the transpersonal caring relationship that is governed by the carative factors. The theory has supported the notion of interdependent influence among the elders and caregivers. The caregiver is influenced by the older adult, and the patient and caregivers engage each other in social, personal, spiritual and moral dimensions in a transpersonal caring relationship.

Advantages of Jean Watson Theory in Clinical Practice and Patient Education

Watson’s theory of care has been a vital part of clinical practice since it offers a background on the idea of effective care to bring optimal health to individuals. One of the benefits of the theory is that it supports clinical practice by improving the quality of care through simple, caring aspects. The theory contends that caring needs to regenerate life energies and promote self-actualization in the process of care (McMillan, 2017). Therefore, the theory has enhanced patient care by addressing how nurses are expected to express care to individuals. Additionally, the theory has offered a unique way of providing care through a holistic approach to healthcare which has been central in caring environments.

The theory has led to clinical practice that regenerates potentiates and life energies through better patient education. Ideally, Jean Watson focused on influencing the patient behaviour in the care process through transpersonal caring relationships, which lead to changes in attitudes and knowledge necessary in improving and maintaining the health of the patients. The theory has promoted teaching-learning, which entails the major concept of patient education (Barnes, 2020).

Patient education has a significant role in shaping positive nursing caring behaviour since it promotes transpersonal caring. Watson theory has supported transpersonal teaching-learning, which facilitates genuine patient education. Teaching-learning focuses on sharing information and understanding that address readiness and individual needs by giving patients voices to formulate questions about their health condition.


Nursing theories offers basic knowledge that allows nurses to care for their patients and control their practices. The primary aim of the nursing theories is to improve nurse practices through positively impacting the quality of care and health. These theories are applied irrespective of the nursing specialization to develop guidelines for certain nursing practices. This is because they contain constructs and concepts that are explained through applying them in the nursing practice.

Jean Watson is one of the significant theories of nursing that focus on human caring. Jean Watson theory contributes to the science and philosophy of caring by addressing how nurses need to express care to the patients. The theory believes in a holistic approach as the main aspect of care. Watson’s theory has promoted the caring environment supported clinical practice through relationship management and supportive care, which improve the health outcomes. The theory is also valuable in boosting patient education through the teach-learning carative factor, which promotes transpersonal caring.



Alharbi, K., & Baker, D. O. G. (2020). Jean Watson’s Middle Range Theory of Human Caring: A Critique. International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research (IJAMSR) ISSN: 2581-4281, 3 (1), 1-14. Available at:

Barnes, J. (2020). Improving Quality of Care and Patient Education. Available at:

McMillan, M. O. (2017). The Effects of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring on the Nurse Perception and Utilization of Caring Attributes and the Impact on Nurse Communication. Gardner-Webb University. Available at:

Norman, V., Rossillo, K., & Skelton, K. (2016). Creating healing environments through the theory of caring. AORN Journal, 104(5), 401-409. Available at:

Willis, D. G., & DM, L. S. (2017). Watson’s philosophy and theory of transpersonal caring. Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book66. Available at:

Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: An integrative review. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences33(3), 540-555. Available at: