For this assignment the chosen topic is Infertility an abstract is NOT required, the paper should NOT exceed 10 pages. References should come from research-based nursing and health care journals as well as publications from the pure sciences.
1.) Paper should include an introduction regarding what infertility is
2.) Impact infertilty has on the society.
3.) Describe the pathophysiology of infertility
4.) List as many medical differential diagnoses, apply, explore, investigate, techniques to rule out differentials
5.) treatment options (here you can list all treatment options such as starting at the most simple form of oral hormone medications, then next step in treatment option would be timed intercourse, injection(shots) of hormonal medication, then next step would be IUI, then IVF. Will require research
Infertility means that a man cannot produce fertile eggs that can fertilize a woman’s egg cells, and a woman cannot get pregnant after trying several times for at least one year or more. Some of the signs of identifying infertility in women are that some women will not be able to experience periods, some will experience but will be irregular periods, some will also participate, but in the period they will get a lot of pain which seems to be abnormal and finally, some women will experience bleeding which is so heavy or too light than the normal girl should experience (Massarotti et al., 2019). At the same time, some of the signs in a man are that the male person will experience difficulty in ejaculation. In contrast, others will ejaculate but produce a small volume of sperms which cannot lead to pregnancy, and some of the men may not have the desire to have sex with the female partners. The paper discusses the impacts of infertility in society, including depression, anxiety, and discrimination. The second part covers the pathophysiology of infertility and diagnosis to differentiate it from similar symptoms. The last part discusses the treatment methods, including oral hormonal, time intercourse, injection, IUI, and IVF.
Impacts of Infertility on the Society
One of the impacts of infertility is distress which may come as a result of jealousy among the individuals in the society, thus resulting individual suffering that has the grief (Massarotti et al., 2019). It leads to the suffering of the individual’s mind or body, thus resulting in great pain of the individual. This suffering of the and the reason leads to the sorrow of the individual, and the individual becomes unhappy and even guilty to interact with other individuals of the society becomes a problem since the individual becomes guilty and not familiar with others since of the worry and the upset feeling the individual has towards the members of the society.
Another impact of infertility among the individuals of the family is depression which is the state of feeling dejected by the members of the society (Massarotti et al., 2019). Depression comes when the community members think that they should not talk to the infertile individuals, which means the affected individuals feel dejected. Depression may also lead members affected by infertility to lose interest in what they do in society and even feel sad. This all results in a lack of enjoyment in the community members affected since they lose a lot of appetite due to boredom.
Infertility can also result in anxiety (Massarotti et al., 2019). The individual members of the society who are affected by infertility do not feel good, but they always worry much about their problems. Individuals always fear the daily situations happening in society as their body responds, and they might not like attending the activities in the community. Furthermore, anxiety can make an individual member of society sweat or cry. It makes the individuals react differently to the stress of being infertile, which makes them feel restless.
Socially, infertility can lead to the individual members of the society to have face discrimination which is unfair treatment of the individuals of the community facially by their look so as they are not included in some activities by the look of their face without looking at the practical they do in action ( Massarotti et al., 2019). The social part gains a major negative effect on the members affected by infertility. It thus makes them being judged unfairly by their faces not allowed to participate in some of the social activities.
Furthermore, the infertile members can be regarded as non-human since they cannot give birth in the community and thus are discriminated against (Massarotti et al., 2019). This leads to the individuals not even being considered part of the society when serious decision making is needed, and they are not even being included me such. This makes the individuals feel even insecure as they cannot participate in social issues and feel neglected.
A male person may become infertile when sperms do not work properly. It means that the sperms are not able to fertilize the eggs produced in the ovaries. Again, male infertility may happen when the sperm are blocked from being released (Ritchie & Ko, 2021). If the sperm cannot be released, then it means that the egg won’t be fertilized, leading to infertility. On the other hand, male infertility may occur when there is a reduced desire for sex, making it difficult to sustain the ejaculation process. Failure to maintain ejaculation throughout the process may prevent the release of sperms for egg fertilization.
Besides, the swelling in the testicle area may cause problems with the fertilization process. For instance, pain during the ejaculation process may cause the male person to quit before releasing sperms. Again, male infertility may be caused by the sperm count that falls below the required count. For instance, there should be 39 million sperms in each ejaculate. Therefore, a person who releases less than this number may have fertility problems (Ritchie & Ko 2021). A lack of balance in the hormones in the body also causes infertility among males. On the other hand, male releases chromosome y during the ejaculation process. In this sense, male infertility may be attributed to genetic illnesses that cause the deletion of this chromosome.
One of the major causes of female infertility is ovulation disorders which cause hormonal imbalance. Each month, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovulation process. The release of these hormones may be disrupted by emotional and physical stress (Abidin & Treacy, 2019). Female infertility also occurs when the fallopian tube is blocked or damaged. It implies that the sperm won’t get to the ovary to fertilize the eggs. It means ejaculation will not take place. Previous surgery can also cause fertilized eggs to be implanted in regions other than the uterus. This can also cause infertility among females. Infection of the uterus may also prevent the female from becoming pregnant. Medical conditions may also contribute to female infertility—for instance, endometriosis which causes tissues to grow in places other than the fallopian tubes. The surgical procedure involved in removing these tissues may also prevent sperms from uniting with the eggs by blocking the fallopian tube. The condition may also damage either the sperm or the eggs. Sexually transmitted infections are another major contributor to female infertility (Abidin & Treacy, 2019). For instance, a person who has had unprotected sex with several partners is at high risk of developing infections that reduce fertility.