Identify microbe colonies growing on laboratory media

Identify microbe colonies growing on laboratory media

Identify microbe colonies growing on laboratory media 150 150 Nyagu

pidemiology Online Lab Activity Objectives You will: • Identify microbe colonies growing on laboratory media • solve a simulated disease outbreak • gain an understanding of how COVID-19 vaccines work and how they were developed so quickly Directions Individually complete the following activity. Be sure to complete all parts of the activity and answer all questions. You may type your answers directly on this document. You must submit your completed document to the turn in link on Blackboard. Part I: Background Information: Disease and Disease transmission – Read the following information. Before 1850, disease was thought to occur by supernatural causes such as being cursed or being sinful. In those times, some people thought that disease was caused by bad air, which is reflected in the names of diseases like malaria and influenza. During this time, people subscribed to the concept of spontaneous generation, which is the idea that life arises from non-living things. For some, the idea of spontaneous generation seemed intuitive since the maggots that appeared on food left out for several days did not seem to have a visible origin; the flies that laid the eggs were not connected to the appearance of the maggots. Later, Louis Pasteur carried out a simple yet elegant experiment that ended the debate surrounding spontaneous generation. Pasteur, along with other scientists of the time, developed the Germ Theory of Disease, which links pathogenic microorganisms to diseases. It is interesting to note that after this theory gained acceptance in the mid 1800s, surgeons started to wash their hands in earnest. It wasn’t until after 1890 that handwashing was recommended for everyone. There are many types of microorganisms that cause disease: bacteria, fungi, protists, and viruses. Each agent of disease requires a different treatment. For example, you can’t use an antibiotic to cure a cold or the flu, which are caused by non-living viruses not bacteria. (Nonliving) Disease transmission, which is the process of transferring the disease agent from one host to another, can occur through multiple modes. Direct transmission refers to the passage of a disease directly from one infected person or animal to another. Indirect transmission occurs when the infectious agent lingers on inanimate objects (fomites), in feces or in the air before it is passed to another person or animal. SP21 https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/methods-disease-transmission/ Part II: Identifying Microorganisms (Microbes) – Read the following information, view the images, and complete the table. Since individual microbes can’t be seen with the naked eye, a variety of methods are used to identify them including DNA sequencing, biochemical tests, microscopy and the appearance of colonies on laboratory media. Laboratory media is a liquid or gel-like substance that contains all the nutrients that microbes need in order to grow. Several locations in Smith Hall were tested with “Biopaddles”. Biopaddles contain laboratory media and can easily be pressed onto different surfaces in order to see if there are any microbes present. After several days, if any microbes are present they will start to grow and form colonies. Pictures were taken to document the results. Use the density diagram and the microbe key below to identify the microbes on each surface. Do a quick search to find out the type of microbes that you identified (bacteria, fungus, protist or virus for example). Record your answers in the table provided. DENSITY: Use this diagram as a guide to determine the density of the colonies Low Moderate High SP21 MICROBE KEY: Use these images to determine which organisms are growing on each surface SP21 NONE TABLE DOORKNOB RECORD YOUR ANSWERS HERE (expand the table as needed) SURFACE DENSITY MICROBE(S) (low, PRESENT moderate, (your best high) judgement) None (control, for comparison) N/A None Table LIGHT SWITCH TYPE OF MICROBE(S) (internet search – is it a bacteria, fungus, virus, protist?) None Doorknob Light switch Part III. Epidemiology – Read the following information, watch the video, and answer the questions. Epidemiology is the study of how a disease spreads through a population. Epidemiologists investigate how diseases spread and determine causes, if possible. They attempt to track the transmission back to the index case, or first person with the disease or condition in the epidemic. Epidemiologists also look for modes and SP21 rates of transmission, any reservoirs that may harbor the infectious agent outside of a host, and collect data on subsequent cases that arise. In the 1800s, London had many outbreaks of cholera; some very severe. Cholera is a bacterial disease that still occurs today in parts of the developing world. It is an intestinal disease that causes diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting and can be fatal if not treated. In 1854, a London physician named John Snow earned the title “Father of Epidemiology” for the work that he did to determine the cause of a severe outbreak. Watch the short PBS video John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology at https://mpt.pbslearningmedia.org/asset/envh10_vid_johnsnow/ Questions 1. In 1854, what was the prevailing theory on the spread of cholera? 2. What did all of the Soho victims have in common? 3. How did they stop the spread of cholera in this neighborhood? Part IV. Solve a Disease Outbreak – Act as a Disease Detective to solve a disease outbreak using clues and data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Instructions 1. Access Solve the Outbreak on the CDC website at https://www.cdc.gov/mobile/applications/sto/webapp.html 2. Select Level 1, then select an outbreak to solve 3. Copy and paste a screen shot below of your entire screen including the date/time in the corner of the screen showing your score after you solve the outbreak. Part V. Coronavirus – Basic Research Leads to Life Saving Medicine – Approximately one year after the first news of the coronavirus, scientists had already developed more than one vaccine to prevent COVID-19. Find out how they did it by watching the video Inside the Lab that Invented the COVID-19 Vaccine at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-92HQA0GcI8. Answer the following questions as you watch. Questions 1. What is they typical timeline for the development of a vaccine (approximately how many years does it take)? 2. In general terms, what does a vaccine do? 3. What part of the virus did researchers focus on for vaccine development? 4. What was the “big awesome science machine”, and what did the researchers use it for? 5. Why do some vaccines contain mRNA? 6. How did they develop the vaccine so quickly? SP21
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