Human Growth Assignment

Human Growth Assignment

Human Growth Assignment 150 150 Peter

Human Growth Assignment

A

Consider the lifespan development process and describe the following changes in the INFANT from content in your text and outside, credible sources. In your response, use resources in the last three years that support recent scientific findings, citing at least one specific example of a new discovery in each of the following areas:

1. Physical changes
2. Cognitive changes
3. Nutritional needs/changes
4. Sensory changes

B

Provide an explanation of the nature/nurture controversy as it pertains to each of the following. When providing your response, use at least two (2) evidence-based research resources from the last three years that support recent scientific findings, citing at least one specific example of a new discovery in each of the following areas:

  • Prenatal Development
  • Labor and Birth
  • Birth Complications
  • Development of the Competent Newborn

Sample Paper

1) Consider the lifespan development process and describe the following changes in the INFANT from content in your text and outside, credible sources. In your response, use resources in the last three years that support recent scientific findings, citing at least one specific example of a new discovery in each of the following areas:

a) Physical changes in infant

  • Infants’ physical development in the first two years of life is extensive and infants heads are quite large when compared with the rest of their bodies.
  • The development of the height and weight is a one example of physical development like the first several days of life of the infant , most newborns lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight before they adjust to feeding like sucking, swallowing, and digesting. After they grow rapidly, gaining an average of 5 to 6 ounces per week during the first month after birth. They have doubled their birth weight by the age of 4 months and have nearly tripled it by their first birthday. Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the fi rst year, approximately doubling their birth length by their first birthday(next year).
  • Example : A recent research found that average North American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7 pounds. Ninety-fi ve percent of full-term newborns are 18 to 22 inches long and weigh between 5 and 10 pounds

b) Cognitive changes

  • Piaget’s Theory of Infant Development involves the cognitive process in the infant, cognitive process are measured especially by schemes, assimilation, accommodation, organization, equilibrium, and equilibration
  • Assimilation occurs when infant use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences whereas Accommodation occurs when infant adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.
  • The toddler in later years might call all moving vehicles on roads “cars” including motorcycles and trucks. the child has assimilated these objects to his or her existing scheme.
  • But the child soon learns that motorcycles and trucks are not cars and fine-tunes the category to exclude motorcycles and trucks, accommodating the scheme.
  • For example,: based on the Piaget’s Theory of Infant Development, Laurent ( a girl infant )displayed a scheme for sucking; where Jacqueline displayed a problem-solving scheme when she was able to open the door without losing her blades of grass

c) Nutritional needs/changes

  • From birth to 1 year of age, human infants nearly triple their weight and increase their length by 50 percent, and nutritional changes involving eating characterize the infant’s first year like infants’ motor skills improve, they change from using suck-and-swallow movements with breast milk or formula to chew-and-swallow movements with semisolid and then more complex foods.
  • By the end of the first year of life of an infant ,they can sit independently, can chew and swallow a range of textures, are learning to feed themselves, and are making the change to the family diet and meal patterns. At this point, infants need to have a diet that includes a variety of foods especially fruits and vegetables.  
  • Example: a research done eating pattern of infants where up to one-third of the babies ate no vegetables and fruit but frequently ate French fries, and almost half of the 7- to 8-month-old babies were fed desserts, sweets, or sweetened drinks. By 15 months, French fries were the most common vegetable the babies ate. Such poor dietary patterns early in development can result in more infants being overweight

d) Sensory changes:

  • Sensorimotor change stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age, during this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions—hence the term “sensorimotor.”
  • Simple reflexes are seen in infants within 1 st month of birth, coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors like rooting, sucking, and grasping reflexes; newborns suck reflexively when their lips are touched.
  • First habits and primary circular reactions are seen in the 1-4months of birth where the infants might accommodate actions by sucking their thumb differently from how they suck on a nipple.
  • Example : If a toy is hidden twice, initially at location A(same ) and subsequently at location B, a 8- to 12-month-old infants search correctly at location A initially . But when the toy is subsequently hidden at location B, they make the mistake of continuing to search for it at location A not B is called A-not-B error (also called AB error) is the term used to describe this common mistake

2) Provide an explanation of the nature/nurture controversy as it pertains to each of the following. When providing your response, use at least two (2) evidence-based research resources from the last three years that support recent scientific findings, citing at least one specific example of a new discovery in each of the following areas:

  • a) Prenatal Development:
  • Typical prenatal development begins with fertilization and ends with birth, lasting between 266 and 280 days (from 38 to 40 weeks).
  • the prenatal factors such as maternal smoking, maternal depression, maternal weight, infant birth weight, gestational age and birth order affect the development of foetuses.
  • 1) A recent research in Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS) found that genetics as well as the environment in the womb play important roles in the development of the baby.
  • the study shows that the most variable epigenetic marks among new-borns are most likely to be driven by a combination of genetic differences and the environment in which the baby develops before birth.
  • 2) The Nature-Versus-Nurture Controversy and Its Implications for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health

b) Labor and Birth

  • The fetus starts labor with the release of large amounts of estrogenin the mother, beginning the transition from fetus to newborn. Labor involves strong contractions of the uterus, which result in birth. From fertilization to birth and thereafter, human development is dynamic, continuous, and complex.
  • 1) At starting of intrauterine life, the pregnant women may be influenced by several factors that will determine the course of her development, some of which are: the age and iet of the pregnant woman, the abuse of drugs and medication, infections. In general, the renatal period has psychological, social, and biological significance for both the child and the family, which affects the child even before birth a study was done by BBC news UK
  • 2) Factors Affecting the Labor a study was done in by Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran which estimate pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors that have an effect on duration of the labor.

c) Birth Complications

  • At the time of birth, a person receives as inheritance a series of biological structures – sensory and neurological -, which remain constant throughout life. Therefore, it is these biological structures that will predispose the appearance of certain mental structures.
  • 1) Labor that does not progress which occurs when contractions weakens, the cervix opening does not dilate enough the infant’s descent in the birth canal does not proceed smoothly. If labor is not progressing, a the physician may give the woman medications to increase contractions and speed up labor, or the woman may need a cesarean delivery, was found in the study of Dystocia in nulliparous women. American Family Physician,February 23, 2017
  • 2) Excessive bleeding occurs during delivery results in tears to the uterus, or if the uterus does not contract to deliver the placenta, heavy bleeding can result. sometimes maternal death due heavy blood loss, some studies supported use of misoprostol reduce bleeding while labouring, was found in a study done in Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists number 76, October 2006: Postpartum hemorrhage. Obstetrics & Gynecology in amercian college of gynecology

d) Development of the Competent Newborn

  • New born competent is nothing but the infant does so much activity than normal infant at same age, where the infants born with reflexes to help them get along in the world such as turning their heads toward a touch to the cheek (helps them get nourishment) and thrusting their arms out and grasping to hang on when their head and neck support is suddenly taken away.
  • 1) A study was conducted to review the development of the newborn competent activity using neurobehavioral scale(NBS) used to  examine the newborn’s responses to his or her new environment and is based on the assumption that the newborn infant is both competent and complexly organized, the evidence based research example: The Competent Newborn and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: T. Berry Brazelton’s Legacy

References

  • Dittz, E.D.S., Alves, C.R.L., Duarte, E.D. and Magalhães, L.D.C., 2017. Contribution of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) for the maternal care of preterm neonates. Journal of Human Growth and Development27(3), pp.262-271.
  • Direkvand-Moghadam A, Delpisheh A, Rezaeian M, Khosravi A. Factors Affecting the Labor : A Review Article. Biomed Pharmacol J 2013;6(2)
  • LIFE SPAN Development Thirteenth Edition JOHN W. SANTROCK University of Texas at Dallas.