How should the nurse best administer this medication?

How should the nurse best administer this medication?

How should the nurse best administer this medication? 150 150 Nyagu

NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers
NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers

Question 1
1 out of 1 points

During a clinic visit, a patient complains of having frequent muscle cramps in her legs. The nurse’s assessment reveals that the patient has been taking over-the-counter laxatives for the past 7 years. The nurse informed the patient that prolonged use of laxatives

Response Feedback: Long-term intake of laxatives, antidepressants, and antibiotics has been found to deprive a person of most essential nutrients, such as vitamins. Prolonged use of laxatives is not known to turn urine acidic, cause urinary tract infections, counter the effect of other drugs, or inhibit the biotransformation of drugs. NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers
Question 2
1 out of 1 points

A patient who has ongoing pain issues has been prescribed meperidine (Demerol) IM. How should the nurse best administer this medication?

Response Feedback: The ventrogluteal site is the preferred site for intramuscular injection. IM injections necessitate the use of a larger gauge needle than is required for subcutaneous injections.
Question 3
1 out of 1 points

A 56-year-old female patient has been admitted to the hospital with chronic muscle spasms and has been prescribed a new medication to treat the spasms. She has a poorly documented allergy to eggs, synthetic clothes, and perfumes. What is the priority action of the nurse to ensure that prescribed medication does not experience an allergic reaction?

Response Feedback: The nurse should post an allergies notice on the front of the chart and document the allergies in the appropriate area of the patient’s record; this will allow continuous access of the dietary staff and the other members of the health care team to the information and serve to limit errors. The prescriber would always ask the patient about her allergies before prescribing a new medication. The patient is not having an allergic reaction, so treating her for an allergic reaction is unnecessary. If the allergies are documented in the appropriate area of the patient’s record, the dietary staff will be aware that the patient should not be served eggs.
Question 4
1 out of 1 points

The nurse is caring for a patient receiving an aminoglycoside (antibiotic) that can be nephrotoxic. Which of the following will alert the nurse that the patient may be experiencing nephrotoxicity?

Response Feedback: Decreased urinary output, elevated blood urea nitrogen, increased serum creatinine, altered acid–base balance, and electrolyte imbalances can occur with nephrotoxicity. Ringing noise in the ears (tinnitus) is an indication of possible ototoxicity. Visual disturbances can suggest neurotoxicity, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice) is a sign of hepatotoxicity.
Question 5
1 out of 1 points

30 ml = _______________tbsp
Question 6
1 out of 1 points

Which of the following statements best defines how a chemical becomes termed a drug?

Response Feedback: Even though all the responses are correct, a chemical must undergo a series of tests to determine its therapeutic value and efficacy without severe toxicity or damaging properties before it is termed a drug. Test results are reported to the FDA, which may or may not give approval.
Question 7
1 out of 1 points

A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of

Response Feedback: The incidence of hypertension is significantly higher among African-Americans than other ethnic groups. As well, African Americans respond to some antihypertensive drugs differently than whites.
Question 8
0 out of 1 points

A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient’s medication regimen. Which of the patient’s medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?

Response Feedback: Metabolism of many varied drugs such as calcium channel blockers (used to treat hypertension), statins (used to lower blood lipid levels), and antihistamines (used to prevent allergic reactions) is affected by grapefruit juice.
Question 9
1 out of 1 points

An elderly postsurgical patient has developed postoperative pneumonia in the days following abdominal surgery and is being treated with a number of medications. Which of the following medications that the nurse will administer has the slowest absorption?

Response Feedback: Absorption of drugs is dependent primarily on the route of administration. IV, IM, and sublingual administration results in faster absorption than drugs that are given orally.
Question 10
1 out of 1 points

The nurse’s assessment of a community-dwelling adult suggests that the client may have drug allergies that have not been previously documented. What statement by the client would confirm this?

Response Feedback: True allergic reactions include formation of rash or hives, itching, redness, swelling, difficulty breathing, and anaphylactic shock. Nausea and vomiting, however, are adverse effects of drug therapy. Similarly, an unsafe drop in blood pressure and gastric bleeding from aspirin use are adverse drug effects, not allergic reactions.
Question 11
1 out of 1 points

An unconscious patient has been brought to the hospital, and the physician has prescribed a life-saving drug to be administered parenterally. Which of the following methods would be the most appropriate for the nurse to use when administering the medication?

Response Feedback: Intravenous infusion is the preferred method for use in emergency situations when rapid drug effects are desired. Absorption is considered to be instantaneous, as the drug is placed directly into the bloodstream. The subcutaneous and intramuscular routes could be used but would not ensure rapid drug effects. Intrathecal administration is usually done by a physician or a specially trained health care provider.
Question 12
1 out of 1 points

A home health nurse notes that there have been changes to a patient’s oral drug regimen. The nurse will closely monitor the new drug regimen to

Response Feedback: Changes in the drug regimen may cause changes in drug absorption and thereby decrease the anticipated drug effect. This decrease is due to the prevention of binding and loss of absorption and overall drug effectiveness. A change in the drug regimen would not help a nurse to track the route of metabolism or determine the speed of chelation. If any adverse effect were to occur as a result of a drug regimen change, it would not necessarily be immunotoxicity; it could also be nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, or cardiotoxicity.
Question 13
1 out of 1 points

A nurse has been administering a drug to a patient intramuscularly (IM). The physician discontinued the IM dose and wrote an order for the drug to be given orally. The nurse notices that the oral dosage is considerably higher than the parenteral dose and understands that this due to

Response Feedback: The first-pass effect involves drugs that are given PO and absorbed from the small intestine directly into the portal venous system, which delivers the drug molecules to the liver. Once in the liver, enzymes break the drug into metabolites; they may become active or may be deactivated and readily excreted from the body. A large percentage of the oral dose is usually destroyed and never reaches tissues. Oral dosages account for this phenomenon to ensure an appropriate amount of the drug in the body to produce a therapeutic action. Passive diffusion is the major process through which drugs are absorbed into the body. Active transport is a process that uses energy to actively move a molecule across a cell membrane and is often involved in drug excretion in the kidney. Glomerular filtration is the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule.
Question 14
1 out of 1 points

In order to promote therapeutic drug effects, the nurse should always encourage patients to

Response Feedback: Taking a drug at the appropriate time will help the patient maintain therapeutic drug levels. Not all medications should be taken with food, which can alter the absorption of some drugs. A patient should never increase or decrease a medication dosage without checking with the prescriber. Alternative therapy should only be used if the patient has discussed the therapy with the prescriber and they are in agreement.
Question 15
1 out of 1 points

A patient has been prescribed an oral drug that is known to have a high first-pass effect. Which of the following measures has the potential to increase the amount of the free drug that is available to body cells?

Response Feedback: Unlike oral medications, drugs that are given intravenously do not initially pass through the liver. As a result, the first-pass effect is mitigated and more of the drug is available to cells. Frequent oral doses, low protein intake, and administration with food do not reduce the first-pass effect.
Question 16
1 out of 1 points

Talwin given in combination with Vistaril diminishes the adverse effects of nausea caused by the Talwin. This drug interaction affecting the pharmacodynamics of the Talwin is

Response Feedback: An antagonistic drug interaction results in a therapeutic effect that is less than the effect of either drug alone because the second drug either diminishes or cancels the effects of the first drug. An additive effect occurs when two or more “like” drugs are combined and the result is the sum of the drugs’ effects. A synergistic effect occurs when two or more “unlike” drugs are used together to produce a combined effect and the outcome is a drug effect greater than either drug’s activity alone. Potentiation is an interaction in which the effect of only one of the two drugs is increased.
Question 17
1 out of 1 points

An older adult patient with a history of Alzheimer’s disease and numerous chronic health problems has been prescribed several medications during his current admission to hospital and recent declines in the patient’s cognition have impaired his ability to swallow pills. Which of the following medications may the nurse crush before administering them to this patient?

Response Feedback: A tablet that is designed for immediate release into the gastric environment is normally safe to crush and administer to the patient. Enteric coated and sustained release tablets may not be crushed because doing so compromising the delayed release into the GI tract that is intended with these medications. Sublingual medications should be placed under the tongue to dissolve rather than swallowed.
Question 18
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is discussing with a patient the efficacy of a drug that his physician has suggested, and he begin taking. Efficacy of a drug means which of the following?

Response Feedback: Efficacy indicates how well a drug produces its desired effect. Different drugs have different strengths of attraction or affinity for receptor sites. A drug’s ability to stimulate its receptor is called its intrinsic activity, and the amount of a drug that must be given to produce a particular response is called the potency of a drug.
Question 19
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is caring for a patient who has had part of her small intestine removed due to cancer. She has also now developed hypertension and has been prescribed a new medication to decrease her blood pressure. While planning the patient’s care, the nurse should consider a possible alteration in which of the following aspects of pharmacokinetics?

Response Feedback: Because absorption takes place mostly in the small intestine, there could be possible alterations with this process. Distribution takes place in the blood vessels; metabolism in the liver; and elimination via the kidneys. Because these systems are not affected by her surgery, these phases of pharmacokinetics would not be altered.
Question 20
1 out of 1 points

For which of the following patients would a nasogastric tube most likely be considered to aid in the administration of medications?

Response Feedback: The use of an NG tube for medication administration requires a functioning GI tract. An NG tube would not be used if a patient is vomiting frequently or has had recent bowel surgery. Similarly, an NG tube would not be used in the case of a competent adult who wishes to discontinue his or her medications.
Question 21
1 out of 1 points

Which of the following affects drug distribution throughout the body? NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers

Response Feedback: Both protein binding and altered pH of extracellular fluids affect drug distribution. The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract affects drug absorption, whereas an increase in hepatic enzymes affects drug metabolism. High blood levels are not known to affect drug pharmacokinetics NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers.
Question 22
1 out of 1 points

Tylenol 325 mg/tablet, patient needs 650 mg; how many tables should patient take?
Question 23
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is instructing a patient concerning a newly prescribed drug. Which of the following should be included to help improve patient compliance and safety?

Response Feedback: If patients are aware of certain adverse effects and how to alleviate or decrease the discomfort, they are more likely to continue taking the medication and providing for safe administration. A list of pharmacies can be useful information, but will not improve safety or compliance. Knowing the cost of the brand versus the generic could also be helpful to the patient. However, a substitution may not be allowed, and the cost of a drug does not improve patient safety. Most patients are not concerned with statistics regarding drug testing, and the testing is usually not discussed with patients.
NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers Question 24
1 out of 1 points

A patient has a blood serum drug level of 50 units/mL. The drug’s half-life is 1 hour. If concentrations above 25 units/mL are toxic and no more of the drug is given, how long will it take for the blood level to reach the nontoxic range?

Response Feedback: Half-life is the time required for the serum concentration of a drug to decrease by 50%. After 1 hour, the serum concentration would be 25 units/mL (50/2). After 2 hours the serum concentration would be 12.5 units/mL (25/2) and reach the nontoxic range.
Question 25
1 out of 1 points

A patient is treated with an antibiotic for an infection in his leg. After 2 days of taking the antibiotic, the patient calls the clinic and reports that he has a rash all over his body. The nurse is aware that a rash can be an adverse effect of an antibiotic and can be either a biologic, chemical, or physiologic action of the drug, which is an example of

Response Feedback: Pharmacodynamics is the biologic, chemical, and physiologic actions of a particular drug within the body and the study of how those actions occur, including adverse effects. It is how the drug affects the body. The pharmacodynamics of a drug is responsible for its therapeutic effects and sometimes its adverse effects. Pharmacotherapeutics refers to the desired, therapeutic effect of the drug. Pharmacokinetics is the changes that occur to the drug while it is inside the body. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variables affect the pharmacodynamics of a drug in a specific patient.
Question 26
1 out of 1 points

A nurse notes new drug orders for a patient who is already getting several medications. Which of the following is the most important consideration when preparing to administer the new drugs? NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers

Response Feedback: It would be appropriate for the nurse to consider all the responses. However, the most important consideration would be possible drug–drug reactions, since the patient is already taking medications. The nurse may have to decide on a new administration schedule, and she must be aware of signs and symptoms of actions that might occur.
Question 27
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is teaching an older adult patient about polypharmacy. Which of the following statements best describe this term?

Response Feedback: Polypharmacy is defined as taking several drugs at the same time. The other options are false statements.
Question 28
1 out of 1 points

An 80-year-old man has been prescribed oxycodone for severe, noncancer, chronic pain. He tells the nurse that he has difficulty swallowing and asks if he can crush the tablet before swallowing. The nurse will advise the patient that

Response Feedback: The nurse should caution the patient against crushing the tablet before ingesting it. Crushing allows an extremely high dose of the drug to be available all at once, instead of being released slowly over time. NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers Severe adverse effects are possible when it is used in this manner. The other options are false statements.
Question 29
1 out of 1 points

A 77-year-old man with a long history of absence seizures has been treated with ethosuximide for many years. The man is now in the process of moving to a long-term care facility and a nurse is creating a plan of care. The nurse understands the potential adverse effects of this drug and would consequently prioritize which of the following nursing diagnoses?

Response Feedback: Common adverse effects of ethosuximide are drowsiness, dizziness, and lethargy. Respiration, urinary function, and skin integrity are not normally affected by the use of ethosuximide.
Question 30
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is administering drugs to a 70-year-old patient who has a reduced plasma albumin level. When assessing the patient for therapeutic outcomes of drug therapy, the nurse will also be careful to observe for

Response Feedback: Decreased levels of plasma albumin can lead to fewer binding sites for protein-binding drug molecules. Decreased binding sites results in higher concentrations of unbound forms of a drug, which increases the risk of adverse effects and toxicity and can increase therapeutic effects. Plasma albumin does not alter absorption of a drug but is responsible for binding, transporting, and distributing drugs throughout the body. Even though higher concentrations of a free drug increase the amount of the drug available for metabolism, normal age-related decreases in liver function offset any increase in the pharmacokinetic process.
Question 31
1 out of 1 points

A 67-year-old man is admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. He reports to the nurse that he has chronic arthritis and circulation problems. Further assessment by the nurse reveals that the patient has a history of mild hypertension. He explains that he owns a business and lives alone. The nurse determines that he is within the normal weight range for his height and age but has a fondness for spicy foods and sweets. Which of the mentioned patient variables will have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of the patient’s drug therapy?

Response Feedback: Vascular impairment would have the greatest implication on drug therapy for the patient. Blood flow can affect the rate of absorption. Patients who have impaired circulatory systems absorb drugs less rapidly than those with normally functioning systems. Distribution depends on blood flow to the tissues, the drug’s ability to leave the blood, and the drug’s ability to enter cells. Once a drug is absorbed, it is transported to the tissues and cells through the circulatory system. Pathophysiologic changes in the vascular system impair the distribution of drug molecules, which may decrease the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Vascular system impairment can affect liver functioning by decreasing drug metabolism, which can lead to increased circulating levels of the drug, possibly causing more adverse effects. Also, vascular system impairment can affect the capillary network and could lead to increased circulating blood levels of a drug. This could cause more adverse effects to occur. The other variables such as mild hypertension and chronic arthritis should also be considered but would not strongly affect drug therapy. Dietary habits would not significantly affect this patient’s drug therapy.
Question 32
1 out of 1 points

A nurse who is working with an older adult patient who takes eight medications a day wants to promote medication adherence. Which of the following nursing interventions would best promote medication adherence?

Response Feedback: Placing pills in a daily or weekly pillbox will help remind the patient to take the pills as scheduled and should serve as a visual aid to help make him more aware of having to take medication. Patients should always take medications as prescribed to ensure therapeutic effects, and prescriptions should be refilled prior to the last dose to ensure continuity of drug therapy. Elderly patients should ask for bottles with easy open caps due to possible arthritic changes that might interfere with the patient opening a bottle. NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers.
Question 33
1 out of 1 points

A 70-year-old patient has just started taking lorazepam 10 days ago for anxiety issues related the death of her husband. She is staying with her daughter for a couple of weeks. The patient’s daughter has noticed that her mother is having difficulty walking and seems to be confused at times and calls the clinic to report this to the nurse. The nurse will inform the daughter that

Response Feedback: If ataxia and confusion occur, especially in older adults or in a debilitated patient, dose adjustments should be made if the effects persist. If the drug is stopped immediately, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Intravenous administration or continuing the same dosage and medication would not help relieve ataxia or confusion in the patient.
Question 34
1 out of 1 points

Mr. Nguyen, age 71, will soon be discharged home from the hospital after a successful coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). During patient education about his drug regimen, Mr. Nguyen’s nurse should prioritize teach about

Response Feedback: The potential for adverse effects, and strategies to minimize these risks, should be a central component of patient teaching around drug therapy. It is less necessary for the patient to understand the prescriber’s rationale for the specific regimen or the age-related changes that influence such decisions. Older adults do not necessarily need assistance with their medications, provided cognitive deficits do not exist.
Question 35
1 out of 1 points

Before the administration of morphine to a 65-year-old man who has cancer, the initial action of the nurse would be to check the patient’s

Response Feedback: The most hazardous adverse effects of morphine relate to excessive CNS depression and include respiratory depression, hypoventilation, apnea, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression, cardiac arrest, shock, and coma. The most frequent adverse effect of morphine is respiratory depression NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers. The nurse’s initial action should be to check the patient’s respiratory rate, depth, and rhythm. Morphine should not be administered to any patient with respiratory depression because it may precipitate respiratory arrest. Heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature are important and should be assessed, but doing so would not be the initial action of the nurse.
Question 36
1 out of 1 points

Mrs. Houston is a 78-year-old woman who resides in an assisted living facility. Her doctor prescribed digoxin at her last visit to the clinic and she has approached the nurse who makes regular visits to the assisted-living facility about this new drug. What teaching point should the nurse emphasize to Mrs. Houston?

Response Feedback: Patients taking digoxin need to know the importance of having all laboratory work (serum drug levels; electrolytes) performed on time. Digoxin is not taken if the patient is bradycardic, and it does not provide an immediate or short-term increase in exercise tolerance. Blood pressure monitoring is not normally required for patients who are taking digoxin.
Question 37
1 out of 1 points

An 80-year-old patient has been taking lorazepam since his wife died a year ago. He has been staying with his son, but will now move to an assisted living facility. Before admission to the assisted living facility, the patient’s physician has determined that the drug is no longer needed. The nurse at the facility will plan to

Response Feedback: It is important for the nurse to understand that lorazepam should be gradually withdrawn, because the patient has been using the drug for a year. If stopped abruptly the patient could experience withdrawal symptoms. The craving for benzodiazepines will decrease over time without the use of another drug. Urticaria and rash are adverse effects of the drug, not withdrawal effects.
Question 38
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is caring for a 78-year-old patient with renal insufficiency and chronic heart failure who is receiving rapid infusions of high-dose furosemide. It will be a priority for the nurse to monitor for

Response Feedback: Ototoxicity can occur with rapid intravenous administration, especially in patients with poor renal function and in those receiving high doses of furosemide. Although usually transient, ototoxicity may result in permanent damage. Rapid infusions of high-dose furosemide would not place the patient at risk for hepatic encephalopathy. Excessive diuresis from furosemide can result in dehydration and vascular thrombosis, but they would not be the priority in this case.
Question 39
1 out of 1 points

A 70-year-old woman has experienced peripheral edema and decreasing stamina in recent months and has sought care from her primary care provider. The patient’s subsequent diagnostic workup has resulted in a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. The woman has been prescribed digoxin and the nurse has begun patient education. What should the nurse teach the patient about her new medication?

Response Feedback: Digoxin is used to maintain clinical stability and improve symptoms, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with all phases of CHF; it does not decrease mortality from CHF or cure the disease. Digoxin increases urine production but its therapeutic effect is not primarily gained from diuresis or blood pressure reduction.
Question 40
1 out of 1 points

A nurse is conducting an assessment of a patient who has recently had several changes made to her drug regimen. What assessment question most directly addresses the safety implications of the patient’s drug regimen?

Response Feedback: The use of alternative medications and herbal treatments is high, and increasing; because older adults tend to take more prescribed medications than other age groups, they are at higher risk for drug interactions if they take alternative medications. Questions about the drug route, expectations for treatment and the particular pharmacy are less directly related to the issue of safety. NURS 6512 Exam Questions with answers.