How ought the Christian think about sickness and health?

How ought the Christian think about sickness and health?

How ought the Christian think about sickness and health? 150 150 Nyagu

Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis
Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

In addition to the topic study materials, use the chart you completed and questions you answered in the Topic 3 about \”Case Study: Healing and Autonomy\” as the basis for your responses in this assignment.

Answer the following questions about a patient\’s spiritual needs in light of the Christian worldview.

In 200-250 words, respond to the following: Should the physician allow Mike to continue making decisions that seem to him to be irrational and harmful to James, or would that mean a disrespect of a patient\’s autonomy? Explain your rationale. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.
In 400-500 words, respond to the following: How ought the Christian think about sickness and health? How should a Christian think about medical intervention? What should Mike as a Christian do? How should he reason about trusting God and treating James in relation to what is truly honoring the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence in James\’s care?
In 200-250 words, respond to the following: How would a spiritual needs assessment help the physician assist Mike determine appropriate interventions for James and for his family or others involved in his care?

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Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Case Study: Healing and Autonomy

Mike and Joanne are the parents of James and Samuel, identical twins born 8 years ago. James is currently suffering from acute glomerulonephritis, kidney failure. James was originally brought into the hospital for complications associated with a strep throat infection. The spread of the A streptococcus infection led to the subsequent kidney failure. James’s condition was acute enough to warrant immediate treatment. Usually cases of acute glomerulonephritis caused by strep infection tend to improve on their own or with an antibiotic. However, James also had elevated blood pressure and enough fluid buildup that required temporary dialysis to relieve.

The attending physician suggested immediate dialysis. After some time of discussion with Joanne, Mike informs the physician that they are going to forego the dialysis and place their faith in God. Mike and Joanne had been moved by a sermon their pastor had given a week ago, and also had witnessed a close friend regain mobility when she was prayed over at a healing service after a serious stroke. They thought it more prudent to take James immediately to a faith healing service instead of putting James through multiple rounds of dialysis. Yet, Mike and Joanne agreed to return to the hospital after the faith healing services later in the week, and in hopes that James would be healed by then. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

Two days later the family returned and was forced to place James on dialysis, as his condition had deteriorated. Mike felt perplexed and tormented by his decision to not treat James earlier. Had he not enough faith? Was God punishing him or James? To make matters worse, James’s kidneys had deteriorated such that his dialysis was now not a temporary matter and was in need of a kidney transplant. Crushed and desperate, Mike and Joanne immediately offered to donate one of their own kidneys to James, but they were not compatible donors. Over the next few weeks, amidst daily rounds of dialysis, some of their close friends and church members also offered to donate a kidney to James. However, none of them were tissue matches. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

James’s nephrologist called to schedule a private appointment with Mike and Joanne. James was stable, given the regular dialysis, but would require a kidney transplant within the year. Given the desperate situation, the nephrologist informed Mike and Joanne of a donor that was an ideal tissue match, but as of yet had not been considered—James’s brother Samuel.

Mike vacillates and struggles to decide whether he should have his other son Samuel lose a kidney or perhaps wait for God to do a miracle this time around. Perhaps this is where the real testing of his faith will come in? Mike reasons, “This time around it is a matter of life and death. What could require greater faith than that?”

Intervention and Ethical Decision-Making

Different models of ethical decision-making suggest different steps and priorities, but the important thing to note is that all models are attempting to organize all of the relevant information in a case so that nothing is left out of consideration. Still, the way in which all of the relevant details in a case are considered will always take place within the context of a worldview. As such, the most important determinant of a bioethical decision is not a methodology but the worldview context in which the methodology is functioning.

Consider, then, how the Christian biblical narrative determines the values that are deemed relevant or important in a case and how different worldviews would impact the decision-making in different cases. In addition, the clinical encounter with patients will require one to at least be familiar with what a patient would need in terms of spiritual care. It is not always expected that health care providers be experts in regards to spiritual care.

However, it is important that they at least be facilitators capable of recognizing a patient’s worldview, as well as the persons and resources that would meet a patient’s spiritual needs. Examine carefully the methods and goals of a spiritual needs assessment in helping to determine a patient’s spiritual needs.

As has been clearly seen in previous topic overviews, the Christian worldview revolves around Jesus Christ and one’s relationship with God through him. The spiritual needs of Christians will be met by the persons and resources that enable one to see oneself as a child of God, and which bring hope, peace, and joy inthe midst of suffering and uncertainty. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

Applying the Four Principles: Case Study
Part 1: Chart (60 points)
Based on the “Healing and Autonomy” case study, fill out all the relevant boxes below. Provide the information by means of bullet points or a well-structured paragraph in the box. Gather as much data as possible.

Medical Indications
Beneficence and Non-maleficence

Patient Preferences
Autonomy

Medical indications are critical facts, opinions, and assessment of the patients that facilitate accurate diagnostic and therapeutic services in the health facilities. Clinicians provide treatment services by such information. In this regard, the goal of the provision of treatment and care services is to improve the well-being of the patients (Orr, 2015). The principles of beneficence and non-maleficence are essential to the provision of medical services. The medical professionals are guided by the need to maximize positive outcomes of the treatment processes. Non-maleficence principle implies nurses are not expected to inflict harm to patients internationally. The medical ethics protect the well-being of the patients when administering treatment services (Meilaender, 2013). Likewise, beneficence also contributes to the provision of patient-centered medical services based on the observed medical indications. The symptoms are often sufficient for the physicians to make accurate diagnosis and therapy that is of great significance to the patient seeking treatment. For instance, James’ medical condition require quick action of the physician in easing his acute glomerulonephritis arising from a strep throat infection. In doing so, nurses are expected to avoid intentionally inflicting pain to the patients. The concept of autonomy and beneficence relate closely as far provision of health services are concerned. The clinicians are expected to balance risks, costs with the need to improve the health condition of their patient. The element of autonomy takes into consideration the need for incorporating patient or caregiver’s perspective concerning the provision of care services. In other words, patient’s preferences such as personal value systems and beliefs. The case study presents dilemmas on balancing between religious beliefs and the need to seek urgent medical attention. James parent’s preferred placing their faith in God to seeking dialysis services to ease the condition of their son. However, they enjoy autonomy in making decisions concerning their patient based on their religious backgrounds.
Quality of Life
Beneficence, Non-maleficence, Autonomy

Contextual Features
Justice and Fairness

Quality of life encompasses the satisfaction patients derived from their lives as a whole include their general health. It incorporates the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, and autonomy, particularly in the provision of treatment and care services (The Bible Project, 2017). Clinicians are supposed to avoid intentional medical errors and inputs of the patients should also be incorporated in the treatment processes. For instance, James’ health condition deteriorates due to the decision of his parents to trust too much in their faiths at the expense of seeking medical services. The ethical dilemma present in the case study occurs in the religious context complicating the provision of treatment and care services. The elements of justice and fairness do not feature prominently in the case scenario. However, it can be argued that it is unfair and unjust for the parents of James, a minor, to make detrimental decisions that impact negatively on the general well-being of the patient. James’ parents relied heavily on their faith in God. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

Part 2: Evaluation
Answer each of the following questions about how principlism would be applied:

1. In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, which of the four principles is most pressing in this case? Explain why. (45 points)

The principle of autonomy is critical in the Christian worldview. In this case, the provision of medical and care services take into consideration the need to incorporate the values and beliefs of their patients. Christians believe in spiritual healing through divine intervention. In other words, for proper healing to take place, God’s remain central and of paramount significance (The Bible Project, 2019). Most staunch Christians believe in miraculous healing as seen in many instances where Jesus restored the health conditions of most patients as documented in holy books. Thus, the concept of autonomy in the Christian worldview relates closely with that of beneficence where the interests of the patients are essential as far as the improvement of their health conditions are conditions. By seeking divine intervention, Christians are seeking out for the well-being of their patients (The Bible Project , 2018). They pray to God to do away with the suffering, ailments, and difficulties the patient might be facing. For instance, in the case study, James’ patients are motivated by the miraculously healing of their neighbor and wish the same to happen to their son through prayers to God. They are looking out for the improvement of their ailment of James through committing the same to the Creator.
2. In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how might a Christian rank the priority of the four principles? Explain why. (45 points)

Autonomy, beneficence, justice, and non-maleficence. Independence is supreme since it allows for the aspect of diversity in the beliefs and personal value systems. Christians apply biblical understanding when seeking treatment and care services. Thus, it enables the incorporation of religious values when granting autonomy in the decision-making processes concerning the method and manner of providing such services. Secondly, beneficence also resonates with the biblical teachings on caring for others and promoting their well-being through an act of kindness (Reichman, 2005). Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis. Thirdly, the element of justice is also critical as Christians believe in the righteousness of God. Thus, the administration of treatment and care services should promote equity and judgment concerning the suffering of the patient. Finally, even though the principle of non-maleficence comes last, it is in tandem with the Christian teachings on violence and inflicting injuries to others. Bioethics is rooted in not causing injuries to other people or animals (The Bible Project, 2018). As a result, the provision of treatment and care services that intentionally and willfully inflict pain or cause the death of patients is considered sinful. However, since such circumstances are not envisaged in the health care facilities, the concept amply remotely in the health settings.
References:
Meilaender, G. (2013). Bioethics: A primer for Christians (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Orr, R. D. (2015, May ). Incorporating Spirituality into Patient Care. AMA Journal of Ethics , 123.

Reichman, E. (2005). End of life and sanctity of life. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics (formerlyVirtual Mentor), 7(5), 342-351. Retrieved from http://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/2005/05/ccas2-0505.html

The Bible Project . (2018, May April ). To understand sacrifice, we must understand evil. Retrieved from https://thebibleproject.com/explore/sacrifice-atonement/

The Bible Project. (2017, Nov 30). Word Study:Shalom – “Peace”. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLYORLZOaZE&feature=youtu.be

The Bible Project. (2018, Mar 15). Word Study: Khata – “Sin”. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNOZ7ocLD74&feature=youtu.b Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

The Bible Project. (2019, May 23). The serpent will bite his heel and He will crush his head. Retrieved from https://thebibleproject.com/explore/the-messiah/

Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

1 Unsatisfactory 0.00% 2 Less than Satisfactory 65.00% 3 Satisfactory 75.00% 4 Good 85.00% 5 Excellent 100.00%
70.0 %Content
20.0 %Decision-Making and Principle of Autonomy Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are not analyzed according to the principle of autonomy.
Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are analyzed from both perspectives, but the analysis according to the principle of autonomy is unclear. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are clearly analyzed from both perspectives, but the analysis according to the principle of autonomy lack details. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are clearly analyzed from both perspectives with details according to the principle of autonomy. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are analyzed from both perspectives with a deep understanding of the complexity of the principle of autonomy. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses.
70.0 %Content
20.0 %Decision-Making, Christian Perspective, and the Principles of Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are not analyzed according to the Christian perspective and the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are analyzed according to the Christian perspective and the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence, but the analysis is unclear. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are clearly analyzed according to the Christian perspective and the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence but lacks details. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are clearly analyzed with details according to the Christian perspective and the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. Decisions that need to be made by the physician and the father are analyzed with deep understanding of the complexity of the Christian perspective, as well as with the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses.
70.0 %Content Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis
30.0 %Spiritual Needs Assessment and Intervention (CoNHCP 5.2) How a spiritual needs assessment would help the physician assist the father determine appropriate interventions for his son, his family, or others involved in the care of his son is not analyzed. How a spiritual needs assessment would help the physician assist the father determine appropriate interventions for his son, his family, or others involved in the care of his son is analyzed, but unclear. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. How a spiritual needs assessment would help the physician assist the father determine appropriate interventions for his son, his family, or others involved in the care of his son is clearly analyzed but lacks details. Analysis is not supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. How a spiritual needs assessment would help the physician assist the father determine appropriate interventions for his son, his family, or others involved in the care of his son is clearly analyzed with details. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses. How a spiritual needs assessment would help the physician assist the father determine appropriate interventions for his son, his family, or others involved in the care of his son is clearly analyzed with a deep understanding of the connection between a spiritual needs assessment and providing appropriate interventions. Analysis is supported by the case study, topic study materials, or Topic 3 assignment responses.
30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format
7.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format
8.0 %Argument Logic and Construction Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format
5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis

30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format
5.0 %Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format
5.0 %Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
100 %Total Weightage

Grand Canyon University: PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Healthcare

Spiritual Needs Assessment

As healthcare professionals, it is a necessity to be able to talk with our patients about their spirituality. Their beliefs, values, and morals shape the person they are and how healthcare workers care for them can rely directly on that information. Healthcare professionals must be respectful of the patient’s beliefs, faith, and culture as this builds trust and rapport with the patient. We must be able to care for the patient in the best way possible and knowing the patient’s belief system is an extremely intricate part of the plan of care. Healthcare professionals must be confident and open to ask and answer all type of questions related to spirituality for the sake of patient care. Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

The author of this paper interviewed her family member D.K. who was treated in the hospital for several weeks before being diagnosed with Celiac Disease. The purpose of this paper is to develop a spiritual assessment for the interview, providing a transcript, while also conveying an analysis of the interview. The author will explain what went well in the interview, what could be done differently in the future, and also identify any barriers between the interviewer and the interviewee. This interview will be focused on D.K.’s experience as a patient in the hospital setting.

Part I: The Interview

Me: What are your religious and spiritual beliefs?

D.K.: “I am a Christian and have been for going on 30 years. I believe in God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit. I have been saved and born again.”

Me: When you were in the hospital, how did being a Christian help you?

D.K.: “I think it was more of a relationship with Christ that helped me. Thankfully, while I was in the hospital for almost a month, I had friends and family visit me every single day but at night it would get lonely and fear and doubt would creep into my mind. It was then, that I would pray and call out to God to help the doctor’s figure out what was going on with me and to help me be more understanding through all the pain and anxiety. It was there in the quietness of night that I felt Christ met me exactly where I was and comforted me in a way that I can’t really explain.”

Me: Have your beliefs ever influenced the way you take care of yourself while you were in the hospital? Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

D.K.: “I think, personally, it has made me pray more but I don’t think it has made me rethink any decisions. If it has, it would be signing my advanced directive and sign a DNR in case something should happen to me; I don’t want to be separated from my Lord any longer than I have to.”

Me: Is there anything besides praying that you feel that you need in order to support your relationship with Christ?

D.K.: “It really helped when others prayed for me and over me. I think the most special thing was when my pastor and my family all participated in communion because I wasn’t able to attend church in such a long. It was an extremely special time that I will never forget. It always really helps me and relaxes me to listen to worship music.”

Me: Lastly, is there anything that would help you spiritually, while you were in the hospital that could have been carried out by nurses or doctors?

D.K.: “If anything would be to respect my prayer and quiet time in the morning. It’s hard for me to concentrate and find my focus for the day when I am trying to pray and someone has to come in and draw my blood or come and get my blood pressure. I mean, I understand why they need to do it but I do feel like privacy and respect of personal time should be something that workers in the hospital should be aware of.”

Me: Thanks so much for meeting with me and discussing your personal beliefs. I really appreciate it.

D.K.: “You’re so welcome. Bye.” Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis.

Part II: Analysis

The author interviewed an older-aged Caucasian female, who is also a family member of the author, and identifies herself as a strong Christian. The interviewee, spent months in and out of the hospital, not knowing what was wrong with her. She had symptoms including dehydration, diarrhea, vomiting, upset stomach, etc. most were vague and did not point to one specific diagnosis. When the interviewee was diagnosed with Celiac disease, a disease that inhibits your body from digesting gluten properly, she was extremely disheartened because she was a cook, caterer, and baker. Her whole life involved the use of the ingredient that was making her so sick.

During the interview, the author felt as if it would have been more valuable if she could have interviewed her in the hospital as a current patient, instead of a former patient. The interviewee’s faith was and still is extremely strong for someone to have to rely on the Lord during a time of the unknown. I feel that it is important for healthcare workers to have respect for those who have beliefs and faith to allow that to grow and encourage the moments of quiet time, meditation, or prayer during our daily assessments Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis. Spiritual healing and encouragement can be just as important for some patients as physical healing is.

The author did not feel there were any barriers to approaching the spiritual assessment of the interviewee. In the hospital stay, as an inpatient, it can be a little bit more difficult, especially when considering outside factors such as patient ratios, co-workers calling out, etc. Healthcare professionals and nurses cannot forget the importance of a spiritual assessment even during the busiest of times. When spiritual needs are met there are better patient outcomes, the patient feels hope and strength to continue to fight and pursue health. It is also a great time to build rapport and gain trust with a patient.

Finally, it is amazing when we are able to be encouraged by our patient’s faith and outlook on life. It is important for us, as Christians, to remember that suffering brings us closer to Christ, as He experienced suffering in His life as well. We, as nurses, must be confident in our ability to give spiritual care just as we are physical care. There should be no delay in care of the soul or spirit in a patient because it is just as equally as important as physical healing and can even assist in the healing process.

References

D.K. Personal Communication. November 2016.

Joint Commission. 2016. Medical Record – Spiritual Assessment. Retrieved from

https://www.jointcommission.org/standards_information/jcfaqdetails.aspx?StandardsFAQId=765&StandardsFAQChapterId=93&ProgramId=0&ChapterId=0&IsFeatured=False&IsNew=False&Keyword=spiritual Benchmark – Patient’s Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis