HBS2PTA Human Physiology Theory A 2017
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Q1. How is skeletal muscle contraction controlled in a normal healthy person (or dog)? Describe synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Begin your
description with the arrival of an action potential at the pre-synaptic nerve
terminal and detail the events that occur up to and including the removal of
neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft [3 marks].
Q2. Starting with Acetylcholine binding on the motor end plate, describe in detail
by which a neural stimulus leads to muscle contraction (i.e. E-C coupling),
include a description of the mechanisms underlying muscle relaxation. [3
Q2. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder where the thymus gland
produces antibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. How would this
lead to the symptoms Oscar is experiencing? [1mark].
Q3. Myasthenia gravis does not affect smooth muscle. Based on your knowledge of
smooth muscle regulation, why might this be the case? Include in your answer a
discussion of the differences between smooth and skeletal muscle in terms of
how the nervous system controls contraction [3 marks].
Q4. If an autoimmune condition existed in which the proteins that form gap
junctions were attacked by Oscar’s own antibodies, how would you expect this
to affect his smooth muscles? Would all types of smooth muscle in his body be
affected equally? What effect would this hypothetical condition have on his
skeletal muscles? [2 marks].