Data Representation to Improved Health
Standardized representations of health information serve a diversity of clinical and administrative informational needs and are used in a variety of health care contexts and settings. They support the decision-making of the emergency room physician who decides to prescribe a particular antibiotic for a walk-in patient based on the comprehensive health information reflected in that patient’s electronic health record. They facilitate the epidemiologic researcher’s ability to interpret health data across multiple patients and to draw inferences from that information that can be applied practically by providers to improve outcomes. And they enable the intensive care nurse to capture a patient’s vital signs and record critical patient data throughout the day for review with the clinician to determine the plan of care.
You will need to reflect on the continuum from data representation to improved health and explore how health information standards support different elements of that continuum, such as clinical decision support, knowledge management, and evidence-based best practice. You will also examine the complex relationships among classification, vocabulary, and terminology standards; data interchange standards; and health record content standards and consider how these standards are used in electronic health record applications and administrative systems.
• How can you explain the relationship between the standardized representation of health information and the delivery of care to improve patient health?
• Reference Article: Chute, C. G., Cohn, S. P., Campbell, K. E., Oliver, D. E., & Campbell, J. R. (1996). The content coverage of clinical classifications. For the computer-based patient record institute’s work group on codes & structures. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC116304/pdf/0030224.pdf
This article discusses the need for a standard vocabulary to represent data consistently when using computer-based records and explains how this will then facilitate clinical decision support, research, and efficient care delivery.
• Article: Kush, R., Helton, E., Rockhold, F., & Hardison, C. (2008). Electronic health records, medical research, and the tower of Babel. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358(16), 1738-1740.
Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/pqdweb?did=1464139331&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=70192&RQT=309&VName=PQD
This article considers the potential benefits of data standards for health care and medical research.
• Article: Stead, W. W., Kelly, B. J., & Kolodner, R. M. (2005). Achievable steps toward building a national health information infrastructure in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC551543/pdf/113.pdf
This article offers suggestions for facilitating health care reform through the implementation of a health care communication infrastructure.
• Article: Hammond, W. E. (2008). A perspective on interoperability. Retrieved from http://www.ehealth-connection.org/files/conf-materials/Perspective%20on%20Interoperability_0.pdf
This article discusses the various standards for health information technology and considers how true interoperability could be achieved.
• Article: Kim, K. (2005). Clinical data standards in health care: Five case studies. Retrieved from http://www.chcf.org/publications/2005/07/clinical-data-standards-in-health-care-five-case-studies
This online document presents five different case studies that demonstrate how data standards are currently being used in a diversity of health care organizations and healthcare-related settings.
Note: Read the section “How Standards Are Being Used: Five Case Studies.”
• Article: Quinn, J. (2008). Health information technology architecture vs. semantic interoperability: One reason why health information technology (HIT) interoperability standards can’t achieve the “vision.” Retrieved from http://www.ehealth-connection.org/files/conf-materials/Health%20Information%20Technology%20Architecture%20v.%20Semantic%20Interoperability_0.pdf
This article examines information technology architectures commonly found in electronic health records and clinical information system software applications.
• Article: Spooner, S. A., & Classen, D. C. (2009). Data standards and improvement of quality and safety in child health care. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/123/Supplement_2/S74.full.pdf+html