Health Statistics and Populations
Course Outcomes addressed in this assignment:
MN505-3: Analyze health promotion and illness prevention risk factors in a multicultural context.
PC-4.3: Apply concepts of multiculturalism and diversity to become an agent of change.
Consider you are preparing for a project to evaluate multicultural impact and diversity within a health condition. Health topic of interest is domestic violence affects a specific population (e.g., older adults or women of reproductive age), or race diversity related to a condition. Locate health statistics for your selections and include national and state data. Your work may also include local county or city data if available.
Access the Unit 6 Assignment Grid. Follow the guide directions in the left-hand column of the grid for each section. Research content regarding concepts of multiculturalism and diversity and include interventions that address health disparities.
Population of Interest and Condition
Identify and define a health condition or event.
Define the population by gender, age, and health status.
Identify cultural aspects in the literature review.
Provide a detailed summary of the search process and three components of health sources used in the project.
Include names of journals, organizations, and agencies for health statistics.
Include state and national resources.
Include search criteria such as keywords and date ranges of sources.
Document relevant health information obtained from the search, including four components of the topic: clinical health information on the topic, associated risk factors, significant statistics, local and national including epidemiological trends are present as they relate to change, in the US and global settings
Demonstrate disparities statistically.
Content addresses two evidence-based clinical interventions that are designed to reduce the specific disparities in the examined population.
Include two multicultural aspects of these interventions.
In the literature application, demonstrate concepts of multiculturalism and diversity to become an agent of change.
Include two clinical guidelines or evidence-based management or treatment of the overall health topic to support your stance.
You will provide a summation of your review. Examples of concepts may include personal beliefs and values, the benefits of diverse perspectives, the importance of tolerance, etc. Provide examples of how to bridge cultural differences and build effective relationships for improved health outcomes on the topic.
Domestic violence against women in intimate relationships is a major public health concern in the United States (U.S.). Stalking, rape, and/or physical assault by an intimate partner affects about 42.4 million women in the United States (35.6%) (CDC, 2020). Domestic violence has a particularly negative impact on women who are members of underrepresented ethnic groups. Alaska Native women and Native Americans reported higher prevalence rates of lifetime domestic violence (43.7% and 46.7%, respectively) than non-Hispanic White women (34.6%), according to the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (Stubbs & Szoeke, 2021). The prevalence for Hispanic women (34.6%) was marginally higher than that of non-Hispanic White women (37.1 percent) (CDC, 2020). Numerous studies conducted in the United States have confirmed these out-of-the-control percentages. This paper discusses domestic violence’s effects on women of reproductive age.
Population of Interest
For the purposes of this definition, “domestic abuse” or “intimate partner violence (IPV)” refers to any activity that is intended to obtain or retain dominance and influence over a romantic partner, regardless of the context. Abuse can be psychological, emotional, sexual, economic, or physical actions or threats of actions that have an effect on someone else. Any conduct that causes injury, intimidation, fear, humiliation, harm, manipulation, blame, terror, or wounding is included in this category (WHO, n,d). The population of interest is women of reproductive age. The World Health Organization defines women of reproductive age as women of age between fifteen years and forty-nine years (UN, 2021). Domestic violence has a particularly negative impact on women who are members of underrepresented ethnic groups. Alaska Native women and Native Americans reported higher prevalence rates of lifetime domestic violence than non-Hispanic White women.
IPV and its health consequences among ethnic minority women were studied using a systematic method. PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, and Science Direct, as well as publications found through manual searching, were all included in the examination of peer-reviewed literature. In order to conduct a literature search, all publications in the databases were searched using their titles, subjects, abstracts, and keywords. “Battered women,” “husband abuse,” “partner violence,” domestic violence,” and “intimate relationship violence” were some of the search phrases utilized.
Violent behavior can have short-term, severe, or even deadly effects on one’s health. The more severe the abuse, the more detrimental it is to a woman’s bodily and emotional well-being. Even if a person stops abusing drugs or alcohol, the harmful effects on their health might last a lifetime (Stubbs & Szoeke, 2021). Domestic violence against women in intimate relationships is a major public health concern in the United States (U.S.). Rape, physical assault, and/or stalking by an intimate partner affects about 42.4 million women in the United States (35.6%) (CDC, 2020). More than thirty-two million Americans are affected by IPV, a preventable public health hazard. IPV affects more women than males, despite the fact that it is a universal problem. In the United States, the lifetime prevalence of IPV in women is between twenty-two and thirty-nine percent. In nations around the globe, between ten and sixty-nine percent of women have been involved in a physical assault by an intimate relationship. The prevalence for Hispanic women (34.6%) was marginally higher than that of non-Hispanic White women (37.1 percent) (Stubbs & Szoeke, 2021). According to the Center for Disease Control, associated risk factors include economic stress, low education, substance and drug abuse, anger, and hostility, among others.
Domestic abuse has a devastating effect on women from marginalized ethnic groups. Domestic abuse was more prevalent among Alaska Native women (43.7 percent) and Native Americans (46.7%) than non-Hispanic White women (34.6 percent) (Stubbs & Szoeke, 2021). Violence against intimate partners (IPV) is a leading cause of preventable death and disease across the world. IPV and symptoms, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, drug misuse, as well as chronic pain, are strongly connected, according to scientific data. Both cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychotherapy are evidence-based therapeutic therapies aimed at reducing domestic violence (DV) (Sapkota et al., 2019). Re-victimization is less likely when IPV victims get these therapeutic measures.
Individual behavior, including the use of violence, is heavily influenced by cultural and societal standards. However, norms may both guard against and encourage violence. Domestic violence is influenced by conventional gender expectations and gender inequalities, such as the belief that women should be obedient, stay at home, and not work (CDC, 2020). Some people will be more financially secure than others, increasing the danger of IPV in a culture where some are more equal than others. Additionally, cultural attitudes that condone violence against women have a role in these differences in health. For example, some cultures see women as juveniles and treat them accordingly. Women are at a higher risk of domestic violence-related health issues as a result of these social standards.
Clinical Guidelines/Evidence-Based Management
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victims, especially women, frequently seek medical attention for their mental or physical health, including any injuries or stress-related symptoms. It is possible that a woman who has been exposed to IPV will need medical attention for physical damage or other health issues. Whether or not she confesses that her disease is connected to violence, she may come to the clinic seeking treatment for a specific ailment (Sapkota et al., 2019). Healthcare providers must deliver the best possible healthcare in accordance with protocols while also ensuring that the guiding principles given are adhered to. There should be no retaliation against victims, nor should healthcare practitioners refuse them the treatment they seek.
Both cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychotherapy are evidence-based therapeutic therapies aimed at reducing domestic violence (DV). Re-victimization is less likely when IPV victims get these therapeutic measures (Sapkota et al., 2019). Programs that aim at improving the problem include community education initiatives to educate people on the importance of stopping IPV. These programs also focus on educating the community on the negative effects of IPV, especially on women. The programs are also meant to speak against misleading cultural and societal norms that increase the risk of IPV.
Ethnic minority women are more likely to have physical, mental, and sexual health issues as a result of exposure to various types of IPV. In light of the disproportionately high rates of IPV among ethnic minority women as well as those who are marginalized, it is urgent to recognize the role of cultural contexts, such as norms, beliefs, and other social determinants of health. As important as finding out about IPV is, identifying cultural variables that influence how victims seek help, talk about the abuse with medical professionals, and respond to interventions is as essential. All of these factors must be considered simultaneously in order to successfully address the health issues of these women.
CDC. (2020, October 9). Risk and protective Factors|Intimate partner Violence|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html
Sapkota, D., Baird, K., Saito, A., & Anderson, D. (2019). Interventions for reducing and/or controlling domestic violence among pregnant women in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Systematic reviews, 8(1), 1-11. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13643-019-0998-4
Stubbs, A., & Szoeke, C. (2021). The effect of intimate partner violence on the physical health and health-related behaviors of women: A systematic review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838020985541. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1524838020985541
United Nations. (2021). What is domestic abuse? https://www.un.org/en/coronavirus/what-is-domestic-abuse
WHO. (2021). Understanding and addressing violence against women. Health consequences. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77431/WHO_RHR_12.43_eng.pdf
WHO. (n.d.). Indicator metadata registry details. WHO | World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/women-of-reproductive-age-(15-49-years)-population-(thousands)