Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Population Health Issue Essay Paper
The purpose of this assignment is to explore a health issue and reflect on populations affected as well as interventions to improve health outcomes. Research a health issue and the population affected. Write a 900-1,200 word paper that includes the following: I want the public health issue to be childhood obesity. Identify and describe a health issue of your choice. Identify and describe the population affected by the health issue. Identify two or three interventions used to improve health outcomes of children or adults in case management for your selected health issue. Locate the sources of data for determinants of health for this population. Using analysis and benchmarking strategies, compare disparities of health for this population. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance. Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Population Health Issue: Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is steadily gaining prominence as a major public health issue in the United States (US) and globally. Over the last three decades, the growth in childhood obesity and overweight has received the attention of scholars, health policymakers, institutions and the general public (Williams & Greene, 2018). According to recent findings, obese and overweight children are highly vulnerable to the problem of obesity in adulthood, making it important to adopt, comprehensive, holistic and multi-sectorial interventions and programs aimed at managing, preventing and responding to this particular health issue.Notably, childhood obesity is recorded in children and teenagers with a Body Mass Index (BMI) that is at or above the 95th percentile for their respective age, height, weight and gender(Yusuf et al 2020). Population Health Issue Essay Paper. Precisely, the BMI is a representation of the ratio of weight (in kilograms) to height (in metres). As a complex and serious public health problem in the United States and beyond, obesity in young childrenand adolescents is attributed to a myriad of causal factors including lack of access to healthy food options, absence of regular physical activity, regular exposure to unhealthy food adverts, poor food choices, hereditary and environmental factors(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). As a result, the problem of childhood obesity as experienced in the modern American society can be attributed to the physical environment, genetics and ecologicalaspects including the family, lifestyles, school and the community. Although obesity is a persistent health issue affecting all population demographics in the country, childhood obesity is a complex public health issue with additional consequences due to the high vulnerability of the affected populace (NASEM, 2016). Population Health Issue Essay Paper. According to Donahue (2018), severe obesity in children and adolescents is associated with enhanced risk of poor health outcomes, with the most notable health conditions being cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, sleep problems, musculoskeletal problems and others. Reduced health-related quality of life, peer stigmatisation and discrimination, social and psychological problems associated with childhood obesity could lead to low self-esteem and negative self-image, alongside an increased risk of adulthood obesity(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Equally, childhood obesity contributes to increased economic costs to healthcare infrastructure, with the projected obesity-related medical costs and lost employment wages placed at $1.5 billion and $9 billion to national healthcare costs inthe year 2030 (Donahue, 2018). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Currently, it is estimated that close to a third of U.S. children and adolescents aged 2 and 15 years are obese or overweight, representing more than 25 million youths.Estimates indicate that nearly 17% of American children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years were obese, for the year 2016-2018 (Williams & Greene, 2018). Equally, incidences and prevalence of obesity in children is said to be growing with advancing age: 23% of pre-school children (2-5 years); 34.4% of school-aged children (6-11 years) and 35% of adolescents (12-19) are afflicted with the persistent problem of obesity. Further estimates indicate that 8.3% of pre-school children (2-5 years); 18% of school-aged children (6-11 years) and 21% of adolescents in the United States have been diagnosed with obesity(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Other empirical findings revealed that childhood obesity is a common health problem among Hispanics, American Indians, African Americans and other ethnic minority groups as well as in low-income and lowly educated populations. Although the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States is reported in both girls and boys, adolescent girls and school-aged boys had an increased prevalence of obesity (Donahue, 2018). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
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Population-based Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategy
Williams and Greene (2018) noted that the development and maintenance of favourable environments that supports and promotes continuous physical activity, nutritional education and healthy diets can foster the management and prevention of obese and related outcomes. A supportive environments could be fostered by significant policy changes in key areas including fiscal policy, food labelling and marketing, agriculture and transport and urban planning. In the United States, the limiting the marketing and advertising of unhealthy beverages and foods to children in the mainstream media can cost-effective and efficient in diminishing the prevalence of obesity among this population. Greater focus on nutritional labelling could also raise consumer awareness of the nutritional value and information needed to make healthier food choices(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Recent years have witnessed growing calls for introduction of food taxes as the basis for reducing the purchase and consumption of unhealthy foods while stimulating consumption of healthy food options through tax reduction, production incentives and price subsidies. The introduction of initiatives in schools and homes aimed at increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables can also help to enhance diet quality, promote satiety and good eating habits, and decrease the total energy intake as well as the overall energy density (Williams & Greene, 2018). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, active Community engagement and support is key in addressing the persistent problem of childhood obesity in the United States(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Community-based interventions can utilise available social structures of a particular community or environment to develop and adopt interventions and social events aimed at encouraging the adoption of health lifestyle choices and healthy nutrition, imparting health messages, and promoting access to healthy and high-quality food options (WHO, 2016). The community can mobilise available resources to support and promote healthy educational programs for children, adoption of play-based solutions, harnessing the best new technology, enabling health practitioners to support families, and upholding the role of pharmacological interventionsin the management and treatment of severe obesity in children (Yusuf et al 2020). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Sources of Data for Determinants of Health
In the United States, Survey data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component, National Health Interview Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance System, Redesigned National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and other population surveillance surveys have been utilised to gain key data and information on the determinants of health among children and adolescents(NASEM, 2016). Equally, Systematic Literature Reviews and Statistical Analysis have also been conducted to gain access to a wide pool of primary and secondary evidences on the health determinants for this population (Williams & Greene, 2018). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Comparison of Health Disparities
Although comprehensive efforts have so far been conducted to attain the national goals for nutrition in childhood, vegetable and fruits consumption of persons aged 2 years and older in the United States is still wanting(Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Although American schools are at the centre of promoting and teaching appropriate dietary behaviour and nutrition education, the current pool of research on the nutritional practices of school-aged children is fragmented and scant (Donahue, 2018). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Another area of disparity is the differences in physical activity involvement among obese children and their counterparts with normal weight. Although continuous and regular physical activity in childhood is linked to better mental wellbeing and physical health, findings revealed that a significant portion of children are not adequately active, and hence exposed to the increased risks of overweight and obesity (Yusuf et al 2020). With increased adoption of modern technologies and strong attention on academic achievement, a majority of children and adolescents report decreased levels of physical activities that are developmentally-relevant, fun and enjoyable (WHO, 2016). Population Health Issue Essay Paper
Donahue, J. (2018). Obesity in the US and UK. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 8(4), 1-10.
Kumar, S. & Kelly, A.S. (2017).Review of Childhood Obesity: From Epidemiology, Etiology, and Comorbidities to Clinical Assessment and Treatment.Mayo Clinic Procedia, 92(2):251-265.
NASEM, (2016).Assessing Prevalence and Trends in Obesity: Navigating the Evidence. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
WHO, (2016).Childhood Overweight: Policy Brief. World Health Organisation, 1-8.
Williams S.E. & Greene, J.L. (2018).Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Affecting Factors, Education and Intervention. Journal of Childhood Obesity, 3(2), 1-6.
Yusuf, Z.I. et al (2020).Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Children in the United States. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 9(1), 22-33. Population Health Issue Essay Paper