Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described. 150 150 Nyagu

NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis
NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis
An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact. NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

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In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Module 1: Case Study Analysis Assignment

Posted on: Sunday, March 1, 2020 10:54:14 PM EST

A 65-year-old obese African American male patient presents to his HCP with crampy left lower quadrant pain, constipation, and fevers to 101˚ F. He has had multiple episodes like this one over the past 15 years and they always responded to bowel rest and oral antibiotics. He has refused to have the recommended colonoscopy even with his history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (diverticulitis), sedentary lifestyle, and diet lacking in fiber. His paternal grandfather died of colon cancer back in the 1950s as well. He finally underwent colonoscopy after his acute diverticulitis resolved. Colonoscopy revealed multiple polyps that were retrieved, and the pathology was positive for adenocarcinoma of the colon. NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis

Case Study

Why the Patient Presented the Symptoms

The patient in this case study was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and presented symptoms such as constipation, crampy left lower quadrant pain, and fevers. Constipation is attributable to the reduced bowel movement because of tumors in the colon that narrows the bowel and rectum. The lower quadrant pain can be attributed to the location of the multiple polyps and the obstruction of the colonic lumen (Marley & Nan, 2016). The risk factors for the patient to adenocarcinoma of the colon include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, health history of inflammatory bowel disease, diet lacking fiber, as well as the family history of colon cancer (Saeed et al; 2018). NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis

Genes Associated with the Disease

Familial colon cancer is as a result of mutations of POLE and POLD1 pairs of genes. MACC1 gene is associated with the metastasis of colon cancer as the gene promotes hepatocyte growth factor to be expressed. MACC1 gene is attributed to the invasion and proliferation of the cancer cells in the colon as well as the metastasis of cancer and tumor growth (Hong, 2018).

Mutation occurring on APC gene in chromosome 5 is attributable to adenocarcinoma of the colon. APC gene, a gene that produces the APC protein commonly mutates in colorectal cancers such as adenocarcinoma of the colon. The APC protein produced by the APC gene is responsible for preventing β-catenin protein to accumulate. Mutation of the APC gene leads to the lack of the APC protein leading to the activation of transcription of proto-oncogenes (Hong, 2018). When the proto-oncogenes are changed through mutation, they end up contributing to cancer.

Effect of Immunosuppression on Body Systems

Immunosuppression refers to the reduction of the efficacy or activation of the immunity system. immunosuppression may take place due to the side effects of a certain treatment. Immunosuppression reduces the ability of the immune system to detect and fight cancer cells or fight infections attributable to cancer (Gonzalez et al; 2018). Therefore, immunosuppression reduces the ability of the body systems to fight off infections including cancers, and thus immunosuppression is a major risk factor to individuals developing different types of cancers. A good example is the immunocompromised individuals such as HIV/AIDS patients and organ recipients who have their immunity suppressed using medications; evidence shows that the incidence of cancer is relatively high in this patient population (Cangemi et al; 2019). This indicates that immunosuppression can increase the risk of cancer.

References

Cangemi, M., Montico, B., Faè, D. A., Steffan, A., & Dolcetti, R. (2019). Dissecting the Multiplicity of Immune Effects of Immunosuppressive Drugs to Better Predict the Risk of de novo Malignancies in Solid Organ Transplant Patients. Frontiers in oncology, 9, 160. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00160. NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis

Gonzalez, H., Hagerling, C., & Werb, Z. (2018). Roles of the immune system in cancer: from tumor initiation to metastatic progression. Genes & development, 32(19-20), 1267–1284. https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.314617.118.

Hong S. N. (2018). Genetic and epigenetic alterations of colorectal cancer. Intestinal Research, 16(3), 327–337. https://doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.16.3.327.

Marley, A. R., & Nan, H. (2016). Epidemiology of colorectal cancer. International journal of molecular epidemiology and genetics, 7(3), 105–114.

Saeed, R. S., Bakir, Y. Y., Alkhalifah, K. H., & Ali, L. M. (2018). Knowledge and Awareness of Colorectal Cancer among General Public of Kuwait. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 19(9), 2455–2460. https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.9.2455…NURS-6501 Familial colon cancer Case Study Analysis