Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents. 150 150 Nyagu

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments
NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments

Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

The client, Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian. Mr. Akkad’s diagnosis is major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (presumptive). For the MMSE, the client scores 18 out of 30 which indicate moderate dementia. The purpose of this paper is to present three decisions regarding the client’s medications. The paper will also discuss factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Finally, ethical considerations might impact treatment plan and communication with clients will be taken into account. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Decision Point 1

The first decision is that the client start taking Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks.

ORDER A CUSTOM-WRITTEN, PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Rationale of selecting the Decision

This decision was selected because evidence supports effectiveness of Exelon (rivastigmine) for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia as well (Su et al, 2015). Pathological changes present in Dementia of the Alzheimer type involve cholinergic neuronal pathways. Therefore, exelon (rivastigmine) exercises its therapeutic effect by improving cholinergic function (Kandiah et al, 2017). The medication stops breakdown of acetylcholine and hence improves synaptic transmissions in the brain, which are related to memory and other cognitive functions. The client has Alzheimer’s and hence has low levels of the acetylcholine chemical within the brain. In addition, the client has moderate dementia. FDA guidelines and evidence recommend first dosage to be 1.5 mg BID and if the patient tolerates the dose after treatment of at least 2 weeks, it is appropriate to increase the dosage to 3 mg BID (Birks et al, 2015).

Expected Outcome

With this decision, it was hoped that the client will the client’s cognitive performance would improve. It was also hoped that the client’s behavior, functioning, and he would be able to carry out some activities of daily living. This is because Exelon (rivastigmine) has been shown to be effective in improving symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (Birks et al, 2015). NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments

Differences with the Decision Outcome

However, the client’s condition did not improve as indicated by the son’s report and his MMSE, score of 18 out of 30 with major deficits in orientation, attention and memory. The difference with what was hoped to be achieved and the results of the selected decision can be attributed to the low dosage administered to the patient because higher doses of Exelon have been shown to be more effective (Farlow et al, 2013). For the MMSE, absence of change is not a source of concern because MMSE should be evaluated after months, and not weeks.

Decision Point 2

The second decision is to increase rivastigmine dosage to 4.5 mg orally BID.

Rationale of selecting the Decision

The rationale behind this decision is that evidence shows that higher-dose of Exelon is more effective for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (Farlow et al, 2013 & Stahl, 2008). Rivastigmine indicates dose-dependent efficacy on cognitive functions, activities of daily living, as well as global functioning and hence it was hoped higher dose would be more effective (Su et al, 2015).

Expected Outcome

With this decision, it was hoped that that the client’s cognitive performance would improve and that the increased dosage would have minimal side effects on the client. As aforementioned, higher dosage of Rivastigmine has been associated improved cognitive function as well as better ability to carry out activities of daily living (Birks et al, 2016). Some of side effects of Rivastigmine encompass nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, as well as reduced weight (Mahoney et al, 2014).

Differences with the Decision Outcome

The result of the selected decision is that there was slight improvement as indicated by the client attending religious service with the family. This indicates that the increased medication dosage is improving patient’s symptoms. The client is also tolerating the medication well. There is no statistical difference with the projected results and the actual results of the decision.

Decision Point 3

The third decision is to increase Rivastigmine dosage to 6 mg orally BID.

Rationale of selecting the Decision

The rationale for this decision is that an increased dose of Rivastigmine would increase the concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) for synaptic transmission and hence increase the efficacy of the medication (Sadowsky et al, 2015).

Expected Outcome

The expected result for this decision was that the client’s cognitive performance would improve and that he would be able to better carry out activities of daily living. It was also hoped that the increased dosage would have minimal side effects on the client. A study conducted by Su et al (2015) indicated improved cognitive function and well as improved capability to carry out activities of daily living when the dose of Rivastigmine among individuals having Alzheimer’s Disease.

Differences with the Decision Outcome

There were no notable differences with the expected results and the decision outcome. The client did not report any side effects and also took part in religious services indicating improvement of some of symptoms. Therefore, it is important for the PMHNP to counsel the son of the client regarding the mechanism action of cholinesterase inhibitors such as Rivastigmine. Rivastigmine cannot reverse the patient’s degenerative proves but can stabilize and improve symptoms, and this process is not sudden but gradual (Stahl, 2008).

Ethical Considerations

Ethical issues that might impact the treatment plan and communication with the client include informed consent and capacity determination. This is because clients with Alzheimer’s disease such as Mr. Akkad have cognitive impairments that can hinder their capacity to understand treatment options (Fields & Calvert, 2015).

Conclusion

The first decision was administration of Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks. This decision was selected because rivastigmine has been demonstrated to be efficient in improving cognitive functioning for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease by improving cholinergic function. There was no improvement and hence the second decision and third decision were to increase the dose to 4.5 mg orally BID and 6 mg orally BID. Evidence shows that higher-dose of rivastigmine is more effective for individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease. With the increased dosage, there was improvement on the symptoms because the client was able to participate in important family activities such as religious activities. Finally, since the cognitive function is impaired, it is important to take ethical aspects such as informed consent and decision making capacity when developing client’s treatment plan.

References

Birks J, Chong L & Grimley J. (2015). Rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9(2).

Birks J, Chong L & Grimley J. (2016). Rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group.

Farlow M, Grossberg G, Sadowsky C, Meng X & Somogyi M. (2013). A 24-Week, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rivastigmine Patch 13.3 mg/24 h Versus 4.6 mg/24 h in Severe Alzheimer’s Dementia. CNS Neurosci Ther. 19(10): 745–752.

Fields L & Calvert J. (2015). Informed consent procedures with cognitively impaired patients: A review of ethics and best practices. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1(69): 462–471

Kandiah N, Pai M, Looi I, Ampil E, Park K, Karanam A & Christopher S. (2017). Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia. Clin Interv Aging. 1(12), pp: 697–707.

Mahoney J, Ari K, Verrico C, Arnoudse N, Shapiro B & Garza R. (2014). Preliminary findings of the effects of rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on working memory in cocaine-dependent volunteers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 3(50): 137–142.

Sadowsky C, Micca J, Grossberg G & Velting D. (2014). Rivastigmine From Capsules to Patch: Therapeutic Advances in the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease Dementia. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 16(5).

Stahl, S. M. (2008). Essential Psychopharmacology Online. Retrieved July 13, 2018 from

https://stahlonline.cambridge.org/prescribers_drug.jsf?page=9781316618134c111.html.therapeutics&name=Rivastigmine&title=Therapeutics

Su J, Liu Y, Liu Y & Ren L. (2015). Long-term effectiveness of rivastigmine patch or capsule for mild-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis. Expert Rev Neurother. 15(9):1093–1103.

Week 1 Discussion
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.
The spectrum of agonists to antagonists describes how substances, either occurring naturally (ligand) or synthetically such as psychopharmacologic agent, effect receptor sites (Stahl, 2008). The agonists are agents can increase an action on the receptor by mimicking a naturally occurring agent (Strange, 2008). An antagonist acts by blocking the receptor site to decrease the action of agents (Strange, 2008). Substances can also be partial agonists, which is an action that ranges between full agonist and full antagonist. Instead of increasing an action to the maximum level or blocking the action completely, it is an action that is somewhere in between the two levels (Strange, 2008). Many psychopharmacologic agents work by acting on G-protein-linked systems and ion-channel systems because these are triggered by neurotransmitters (Stahl, 2008).

Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
G protein-coupled and ion-gated channels are both triggered by neurotransmitters (Stahl, 2008). G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have seven transmembrane alpha helices (Strange, 2008). G proteins have three subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma). Ion-gated channels can be activated by electrical signals and neurotransmitters (Stahl, 2008). Ion-gated channels change the flow of ions, causing an almost-immediate effect and GPCRs take longer to work because they may make changes to cellular function over time (Stahl, 2008).

Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action.
Epigenetics is the study of gene expression, or which genes are turn off or on (Stahl, 2008). Pharmacologic actions can turn genes on or off to gain a desired effect. Epigenetic regulation of brain functions is important in the etiology of psychiatric disorders (Boks, et al., 2012). Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, are affected by many pharmaceuticals, including psychiatric drugs (Boks, et al., 2012).

Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a client in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.
Thorough knowledge of how medications work will allow the nurse practitioner to prescribe the best medication for the client. For example, knowing that many anxiolytics work on inotropic receptors and will work very quickly to calm a client in an acute situation rather than prescribing an antidepressant that works on GPCRs and will take much longer to help with an acute episode.

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience.
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Accessible player

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience Optional Resources
Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file].

Essay Assignment NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology

Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain.

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience Accessible player
Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Dementia
The Alzheimer’s Association defines dementia as “a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). This term encompasses dozens of cognitive disorders of impaired memory formation, recall, and communication. The care and treatment of clients with dementia is dependent on multiple factors, including the stage of dementia, comorbidities, family support, and even the care setting. In your role, as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must be prepared to not only treat clients with these various cognitive disorders, but also the multiple behavioral issues that often accompany them. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with dementia.

Reference: Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). What is dementia? Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

To prepare for this Assignment:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Introduction regarding disease state

High-level summary of patient case

Purpose of the essay statement

Decision #1

What options were listed?

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

What options were listed?

What option did you choose?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

What options were listed?

What option did you choose?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Note : Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement.

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

References

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

· Chapter 13, “Dementia and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

· donepezil

· galantamine

· memantine

· rivastigmine

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016h). Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

BACKGROUND

Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal.

According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of “amusement” and “ridicule.”

Over the course of the past two years, the family has noticed that Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things. His son also reports that sometimes he has difficult “finding the right words” in a conversation and then will shift to an entirely different line of conversation.

SUBJECTIVE

During the clinical interview, Mr. Akkad is pleasant, cooperative and seems to enjoy speaking with you. You notice some confabulation during various aspects of memory testing, so the PMHNP performs a Mini-Mental State Exam. Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall. The score suggests moderate dementia.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

Mr. Akkad is 76 year old Iranian male who is cooperative with today’s clinical interview. His eye contact is poor. Speech is clear, coherent, but tangential at times. He makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tic. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect however is restricted. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. He is alert and oriented to person, partially oriented to place, but is disoriented to time and event [he reports that he thought he was coming to lunch but “wound up here”- referring to your office, at which point he begins to laugh]. Insight and judgment are impaired. Impulse control is also impaired as evidenced by Mr. Akkad’s standing up during the clinical interview and walking towards the door. When the PMHNP asked where he was going, he stated that he did not know. Mr. Akkad denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Diagnosis: Major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (presumptive)

RESOURCES

§ Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (2002). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Decision Point One

Select what the PMHNP should do:

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngBegin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-blue.png Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-yellow.pngBegin Razadyne (galantamine) 4 mg orally BID

Decision Point One

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-blue.pngBegin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

· Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· The client is accompanied by his son who reports that his father is “no better” from this medication

· He reports that his father is still disinterested in attending religious services/activities, and continues to exhibit disinhibited behaviors

· You continue to note confabulation and decide to administer the MMSE again. Mr. Akkad again scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall

Decision Point Two

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngIncrease Aricept to 10 mg orally at BEDTIME

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-blue.pngDiscontinue Aricept and begin Razadyne (galantamine) extended release 24 mg orally daily

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-yellow.pngDiscontinue Aricept and begin Namenda (memantine) extended release, 28 mg orally daily

Decision Point Two https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngIncrease Aricept to 10 mg orally at BEDTIME

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

· Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· Client’s son reports that the client is tolerating the medication well, but is still concerned that his father is no better

· He states that his father is attending religious services with the family, which the son and the rest of the family is happy about. He reports that his father is still easily amused by things he once found serious

Decision Point Three

Select what the PMHNP should do next:

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngContinue Aricept 10 mg orally at BEDTIME

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-blue.pngIncrease Aricept to 15 mg orally at BEDTIME x 6 weeks, then increase to 20 mg orally at BEDTIME

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-yellow.pngDiscontinue Aricept and begin Namenda 5 mg orally daily

Decision Point Three

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngContinue Aricept 10 mg orally at BEDTIME

Guidance to Student

At this point, it would be prudent for the PMHNP to continue Aricept at 10 mg orally at bedtime. Recall that this medication can take several months before stabilization of deterioration is noted. At this point, the client is attending religious services with the family, which has made the family happy. Disinhibition may improve in a few weeks, or it may not improve at all. This is a counseling point that the PMHNP should review with the son.

There is no evidence that Aricept given at doses greater than 10 mg per day has any therapeutic benefit. It can, however, cause side effects. Increasing to 15 and 20 mg per day would not be appropriate.

There is nothing in the clinical presentation to suggest that the Aricept should be discontinued. Whereas it may be appropriate to add Namenda to the current drug profile, there is no need to discontinue Aricept. In fact, NMDA receptor antagonist therapy is often used with cholinesterase inhibitors in combination therapy to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The key to using both medications is slow titration upward toward therapeutic doses to minimize negative side effects.

Finally, it is important to note that changes in the MMSE should be evaluated over the course of months, not weeks. The absence of change in the MMSE after 4 weeks of treatment should not be a source of concern.a

NURS 6630 Week 2 Assignment
Assessing and Treating Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders
Therapy for Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders
Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression

Mood disorders can impact every facet of a child’s life, making the most basic activities difficult for clients and their families. This was the case for 13-year-old Kara, who was struggling at home and at school. For more than 8 years, Kara suffered from temper tantrums, impulsiveness, inappropriate behavior, difficulty in judgment, and sleep issues. As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner working with pediatric clients, you must be able to assess whether these symptoms are caused by psychological, social, or underlying growth and development issues. You must then be able recommend appropriate therapies.

This week, as you examine antidepressant therapies, you explore the assessment and treatment of pediatric clients with mood disorders. You also consider ethical and legal implications of these therapies.

Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression
When pediatric clients present with mood disorders, the process of assessing, diagnosing, and treating them can be quite complex. Children not only present with different signs and symptoms than adult clients with the same disorders, but they also metabolize medications much differently. As a result, psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners must exercise caution when prescribing psychotropic medications to these clients. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting with mood disorders.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Assignment is the first of 10 assignments that are based on interactive client case studies. For these assignments, you will be required to make decisions about how to assess and treat clients. Each of your decisions will have a consequence. Some consequences will be insignificant, and others may be life altering. You are not expected to make the “right” decision every time; in fact, some scenarios may not have a “right” decision. You are, however, expected to learn from each decision you make and demonstrate the ability to weigh risks versus benefits to prescribe appropriate treatments for clients.
NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Required Readings
Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline
bupropion
amitriptylinebupropioncitalopramclomipraminedesipraminedesvenlafaxinedoxepinduloxetineescitalopramfluoxetinefluvoxamineimipramineketamine
mirtazapine

nortriptyline

paroxetine

selegiline

sertraline

trazodone

venlafaxine

vilazodone

vortioxetine

citalopram
clomipramine
Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression
Magellan Health, Inc. (2013). Appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents: A clinical monograph. Retrieved from http://www.magellanhealth.com/media/445492/magellan-psychotropicdrugs-0203141.pdf

Rao, U. (2013). Biomarkers in pediatric depression. Depression & Anxiety, 30(9), 787–791. doi:10.1002/da.22171

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Vitiello, B. (2012). Principles in using psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. In J. M. Rey (Ed.), IACAPAP e-Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. Retrieved from http://iacapap.org/wp-content/uploads/A.7-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-072012.pdf

Poznanski, E., & Mokros, H. (1996). Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Required Media
Laureate Education (2016e). Case study: An African American child suffering from depression [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Optional Resources
El Marroun, H., White, T., Verhulst, F., & Tiemeier, H. (2014). Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: A systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(10), 973–992. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0558-3

Gordon, M. S., & Melvin, G. A. (2014). Do antidepressants make children and adolescents suicidal? Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 50(11), 847–854. doi:10.1111/jpc.12655

Seedat, S. (2014)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . Controversies in the use of antidepressants in children and adolescents: A decade since the storm and where do we stand now? Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 26(2), iii–v. doi:10.2989/17280583.2014.938497

To prepare for this Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat pediatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression Assignment
Examine Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2
NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The client is an 8-year-old African American male who arrives at the ER with his mother. He is exhibiting signs of depression.

Client complained of feeling “sad”
Mother reports that teacher said child is withdrawn from peers in class
Mother notes decreased appetite and occasional periods of irritation
Client reached all developmental landmarks at appropriate ages
Physical exam unremarkable
Laboratory studies WNL
Child referred to psychiatry for evaluation
Client seen by Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner
MENTAL STATUS EXAM

Alert & oriented X 3, speech clear, coherent, goal directed, spontaneous. Self-reported mood is “sad”. Affect somewhat blunted, but child smiled appropriately at various points throughout the clinical interview. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. Judgment and insight appear to be age-appropriate. He is not endorsing active suicidal ideation, but does admit that he often thinks about himself being dead and what it would be like to be dead.

The PMHNP administers the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, obtaining a score of 30 (indicating significant depression)

Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression RESOURCES

§ Poznanski, E., & Mokros, H. (1996). Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Decision Point One
Select what the PMHNP should do:

Begin Zoloft 25 mg orally daily
Begin Paxil 10 mg orally daily
Begin Wellbutrin 75 mg orally BID
Case Study of the above client

Decision Point One

I selected Zoloft 25 mg orally daily

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

Client returns to clinic in four weeks

No change in depressive symptoms at all

Decision Point Two
Increase dose to 50 mg orally daily
RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

Client returns to clinic in four weeks

Depressive symptoms decrease by 50%. Cleint tolerating well

Decision Point Three
Maintain current dose

Guidance to Student

At this point, sufficient symptom reduction has been achieved. This is considered a “response” to therapy. Can continue with current dose for additional 4 week to see if any further reductions in depressive symptoms are noted. An increase in dose may be warranted since this is not “full” remission- Discuss pros/cons of increasing drug dose with client at this time and empower the client to be part of the decision. There is no indication that the drug therapy should be changed to an SNRI at this point as the client is clearly responding to this therapy.

SAMPLE DECISION TREE ASSIGNMENT
An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s condition is a neurodegenerative disease that begins slowly and worsens over a long period of time. The condition has been associated with almost 70% of all dementia cases in the world. The most prevalent early symptoms entail the absence of memory concerning recent events. As the condition progresses, other symptoms such as language difficulties, mood swings, disorientation, behavioral issues, lack of self-care management, and disorientation may occur (Houmani et al., 2018). In a gradual manner, all the bodily functions will be lost resulting in eventual death. As much as the disease’s life expectancy varies, the typical expectancy does not go beyond nine years after diagnosis. Importantly, the disease does not have a cure but it could be managed to ensure that the quality of life of patients suffering from it is improved.

The case study for the present assignment entails the examination and treatment of an elderly Iranian man who displays strange behaviors according to his son. Mr. Akan has lost interest in things that erstwhile interested him. Further, the client has been forgetting things and his subjective test revealed confabulation during mental health testing process. Mr. Akad also has restricted affect and impaired impulse and judgment. A mini-mental state examination reveals that Mr. Akad suffers from major neurocognitive disorder caused by presumptive Alzheimer’s disease. This paper describes the assessment outcomes and treatment options for an elderly Iranian man, who has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. The condition can be treated with pharmacological interventions, which are dependent on among other factors dosage, proper selection of drug, and time of use, and administration route.

NURS 6630 Week 3 Assignment: Assessing and Treating Adult and Geriatric Clients With Mood Disorders
Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder

Needs to be 6-8 pages, & total references, but 3 need to be Academic References. Apa Format. Please Read the case study and choose one of the medications below and answer the questions below. The instructor states its ok if we don’t choose the best medication for the patient just as long as we answer the questions and state why we chose the medication and why we did not choose the others.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Adult and Geriatric Clients With Mood Disorders
Advances in genetics and epigenetics have changed the traditional understanding of mood disorders, resulting in new evidence-based practices. In your role as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to continually educate yourself on new findings and best practices in the field. For this Assignment, you consider best practices for assessing and treating adult and geriatric clients presenting with mood disorders.

Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder Required Readings
Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline
bupropion
citalopram
bupropion
citalopram
clomipramine
desipramine
desvenlafaxine
doxepin
duloxetine
escitalopram
fluoxetine
fluvoxamine
imipramine
ketamine
mirtazapine
nortriptyline
paroxetine
selegiline
sertraline
trazodone
venlafaxine
vilazodone
vortioxetine
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marie_Asberg/publication/22697065_A_New_Depression_Scale_Designed_to_be_Sensitive_to_Change/links/09e41513f85c708fee000000.pdf

Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016g). Case study: An elderly Hispanic man with major depressive disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder Assignment
Examine Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1
Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.
Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder
BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The client is a 32-year-old Hispanic American male who came to the United States when he was in high school with his father. His mother died back in Mexico when he was in school. He presents today to the PMHNPs office for an initial appointment for complaints of depression. The client was referred by his PCP after “routine” medical work-up to rule out an organic basis for his depression. He has no other health issues with the exception of some occasional back pain and “stiff” shoulders which he attributes to his current work as a laborer in a warehouse.

SUBJECTIVE

During today’s clinical interview, client reports that he always felt like an outsider as he was “teased” a lot for being “black” in high school. States that he had few friends, and basically kept to himself. He describes his home life as “good.” Stating “Dad did what he could for us, there were 8 of us.” He also reports a remarkably diminished interest in engaging in usual activities, states that he has gained 15 pounds in the last 2 months. He is also troubled with insomnia which began about 6 months ago, but have been progressively getting worse. He does report poor concentration which he reports is getting in “trouble” at work.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

The client is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. He is casually dressed. Speech is clear, but soft. He does not readily make eye contact, but when he does, it is only for a few moments. He is endorsing feelings of depression. Affect is somewhat constricted, but improves as the clinical interview progresses. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no overt delusional or paranoid thought processes readily apparent. Judgment and insight appear grossly intact. He is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation. The PMHNP administers the “Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)” and obtained a score of 51 (indicating severe depression).

RESOURCES

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389.
Decision Point One

Select what the PMHNP should do:

Begin zoloft 25 mg orally daily

Begin Effexor XR 37.5 mg orally daily

Begin Phenelzine 15 mg orally TID

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.
Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources but need 7 in total.. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”
Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marie_Asberg/…

Required Media
Laureate Education. (2016g). Case study: An elderly Hispanic man with major depressive disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder
SAMPLE APPROACH
Geriatric Depression Therapy

Mood disorders, such as depression, are prevalent in geriatric population and older adults. According to studies, conditions such as depression may have debilitating impacts on the family, the patient and their social constructs. Further, studies have revealed that there exist particularities in the etiology, management and clinical presentation of mood disorders in the elderly and older adults (Flint, 2012). Thus, taking cognizance of these particularities and their clinical importance are significant for their effective management in the geriatric population. However, before the management, comprehensive diagnostic undertakings including using the Geriatric Depression Scale (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) are necessary so as to identify the kind of condition that a PMHNP nurse will be addressing. After the identification of the significant variables, and the administration of effective drugs to arrest the condition is recommended. The formulation of the treatment regimen for depression depends on the safety and efficacy of a drug. Other medications and psychotherapeutic interventions are encouraged if the first intervention proves unsuccessful. In the current paper, a 31-year old Hispanic has been diagnosed with severe depression based on score of 51 that was obtained from the Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (Montgomery & Asberg, 1979) by the PMHNP. The diagnosis, medication choice, and alterations made in the present analysis will facilitate a greater comprehension of how PMHNP nurses can therapeutically address depression in an elderly patient.

NURS 6630 Week 4 Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients with With Bipolar Disorder
Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a unique disorder that causes shifts in mood and energy, which results in depression and mania for clients. Proper diagnosis of this disorder is often a challenge for two reasons: 1) clients often present as depressive or manic, but may have both; and 2) many symptoms of bipolar disorder are similar to other disorders. Misdiagnosis is common, making it essential for you to have a deep understanding of the disorder’s pathophysiology. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with bipolar disorder.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment: Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 8, “Mood Stabilizers”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009b). Stahl’s illustrated mood stabilizers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Mood Stabilizers tab.

Chapter 4, “Lithium and Various Anticonvulsants as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Chapter 5, “Atypical Antipsychotics as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Vitiello, B. (2013). How effective are the current treatments for children diagnosed with manic/mixed bipolar disorder? CNS Drugs, 27(5), 331-333. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0060-3

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Chen, R., Wang, H., Shi, J., Shen, K., & Hu, P. (2015). Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(7), 835-841. doi:10.1007/s00228-015-1855-6

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder Required Media
Laureate Education. (2016f). Case study: An Asian American woman with bipolar disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder Optional Resources
Mostafavi, A., Solhi, M., Mohammadi, M., Hamedi, M., Keshavarzi, M., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2014). Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Medica Iranica, 52(10), 734-739.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Retrieved from http://acta.tums.ac.ir/index.php/acta

Analyze ethical and legal implications related to prescribing bipolar therapy to clients across the lifespan ..

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized plans of bipolar therapy for clients
Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in clients requiring bipolar therapy
Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans
To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring bipolar therapy.

The Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder Assignment
Examine Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1
Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different? NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments
Decision #3
NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

SAMPLE APPROACH FROM STUDENT. IF YOU WANT AN ORIGINAL CUSTOM PAPER FROM OUR EXPERTS, SIMPLY ORDER NOW
Assessing and Treatment for Bipolar Disorder Patient
Introduction

Bipolar disorder is not an uncommon illness. It is a very chronic and severe mental disorder, affecting approximately 1-2% of the adult population. The signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder are different depending on the type of episode (i.e., manic or depressive). Each episode marks a critical change from the way a person usually acts and their typical mood, and can be characterized by a sudden change in the general attitude of the patient, the way the patient thinks and the behavior. 1 The changes will be sudden that it will be noticed by people around (Robert et al., 2017). This dangerous demonstrative unpredictability mood disorder can be found in all area of life, that is, from the poor to the rich, this disorder affects millions of people in all facets of life (Robert et al., 2017). Bipolar disorder can be seen mostly in the age starting at 25years or older, but it is not totally absent in the teenage age. It shows that about 2.6 percent of the population are diagnosed as bipolar. 3 (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2017). NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

If not well treated ,Bipolar disorder can be critical; 1 early identification of symptoms with an appropriate treatment plan may include psychotherapy, medications, a healthy lifestyle and a regular schedule will keep the patient healthy (National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2017). 1 The NP should have a good understand of this disorder to be able to take care of this the patient because of its long-term management and how it affects the health in totality (National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2017). 1 My focus of this paper will look into an Asian American Woman with a bipolar disorder, symptoms management, diagnosing the symptom, and the complete treatment. The paper will consider the most safe and appropriate options of treatment and the outcome as the treatment, and care.

NURS 6630 Week 5 Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders

Common symptoms of anxiety disorders include chest pains, shortness of breath, and other physical symptoms that may be mistaken for a heart attack or other physical ailment. These manifestations often prompt clients to seek care from their primary care providers or emergency departments. Once it is determined that there is no organic basis for these symptoms, clients are typically referred to a psychiatric mental health practitioner for anxiolytic therapy. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with anxiety disorders.Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders – NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders Required Readings
Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 9, “Anxiety Disorder and Anxiolytics”

Stahl, S. M., & Grady, M. (2010). Stahl’s illustrated anxiety, stress, and PTSD. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD tab.

Chapter 4, “First-Line Medications for PTSD”

Chapter 5, “Second-Line, Adjunct, and Investigational Medications for PTSD”

Strawn, J. R., Wehry, A. M., DelBello, M. P., Rynn, M. A., & Strakowski, S. (2012). Establishing the neurobiologic basis of treatment in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 29(4), 328–-339. doi:10.1002/da.21913

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Hamilton, M. (1959). Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Psyctests, doi:10.1037/t02824-0

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016b). Case study: A middle-aged Caucasian man with anxiety [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders Optional Resources

Lupi, M., Martinotti, G., Acciavatti, T., Pettorruso, M., Brunetti, M., Santacroce, R., & … Di Giannantonio, M. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in gambling disorder: A qualitative review. Biomed Research International, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/537306

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.

The Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Middle-Aged Caucasian Man With Anxiety. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

A Middle-Aged Caucasian Man with Anxiety
The case study is about a 46-year old white male who works as a welder. His primary care physician refers the man to psychiatry after a trip to the emergency room where he showed symptoms of a heart attack. The patient indicated instances of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and a feeling of impending doom. He has light hypertension but manages it with low sodium diet; he is also a little overweight. The possibility of myocardial infarction was ruled out in the emergency room, and the electrocardiogram did not reveal significant results. The client admits that he occasionally consumes 3-4 beers to counter work-related stress. The patient takes care of his aging parents and encounters stress at the workplace. The mental health exam reveals that the client is alert and oriented; however, he does not have any suicidal or homicidal thoughts. The psychiatric-mental health practitioner (PMHNP) administered the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and revealed a score of 26. The PMHNP diagnosed the client with generalized anxiety disorder. The PMHNP made three treatment decisions for the patient; the first was to apply Zoloft 50 mg po daily, start Imipramine 25 mg po BID, and useBuspirone. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

NURS 6630 Week 6 Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia

NURS 6630 Week 6: Antipsychotic Therapy

According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, approximately 100,000 people experience psychosis in the United States each year (NAMI, 2016). In practice, clients may present with delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, disorganized or abnormal motor behavior, as well as other negative symptoms that can be disabling for these individuals. Not only are these symptoms one of the most challenging symptom clusters you will encounter, many are associated with other disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum. As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must understand the underlying neurobiology of these symptoms to select appropriate therapies and improve outcomes for clients.

This week, as you examine antipsychotic therapies, you explore the assessment and treatment of clients with psychosis and schizophrenia. You also consider ethical and legal implications of these therapies.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia
Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brain’s normal processes, which interferes with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, clients may struggle to function in daily life. However, clients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with psychosis and schizophrenia.Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia – NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Chapter 4, “Psychosis and Schizophrenia”

Chapter 5, “Antipsychotic Agents”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the following medications:

amisulpride
aripiprazole
asenapine
chlorpromazine
clozapine
flupenthixol
fluphenazine
haloperidol
iloperidone
loxapine
lurasidone
olanzapine
paliperidone
perphenazine
quetiapine
risperidone
sulpiride
thioridazine
thiothixene
trifluoperazine
ziprasidone
Naber, D., & Lambert, M. (2009). The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: Results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs, 23(8), 649-659. doi:10.2165/00023210-200923080-00002

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261-276.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Clozapine REMS. (2015). Clozapine REMS: The single shared system for clozapine. Retrieved from https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf

Walden University. (2016). ASC success strategies: Studying for and taking a test. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASCsuccess/ASCtesting

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016j). Case study: Pakistani woman with delusional thought processes [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Optional Resources

Chakos, M., Patel, J. K., Rosenheck, R., Glick, I. D., Hammer, M. B., Tapp, A., & … Miller, D. (2011). Concomitant psychotropic medication use during treatment of schizophrenia patients: Longitudinal results from the CATIE study. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 5(3), 124-134. doi:10.3371/CSRP.5.3.2

Fangfang, S., Stock, E. M., Copeland, L. A., Zeber, J. E., Ahmedani, B. K., & Morissette, S. B. (2014). Polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: Trends in multiple health care systems. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 71(9), 728-738. doi:10.2146/ajhp130471NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Lin, L. A., Rosenheck, R., Sugar, C., & Zbrozek, A. (2015). Comparing antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia: A health state approach. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 86(1), 107-121. doi:10.1007/s11126-014-9326-2

To prepare for this Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.

The Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Assignment
Examine Case Study: Pakistani Woman with Delusional Thought Processes. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:
Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision Point One
https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/06/mm/delusional_disorders/img/pill-blue.pngStart Invega Sustenna 234 mg intramuscular X1 followed by 156 mg intramuscular on day 4 and monthly thereafter

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

· Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· A decrease in PANSS score of 25% is noted at this visit

· Client seems to be tolerating medication

· Client’s husband has made sure she makes her appointments for injections (one thus far)

· Client has noted a 2 pound weight gain but it does not seem to be an important point for her

· Client complains of injection site pain telling the PMHNP that she has trouble siting for a few hours after the injections and doesn’t like having to walk around for such a long period of time

Decision Point Two
https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/06/mm/delusional_disorders/img/pill-red.pngContinue same decision made but instruct administering nurse to begin injections into the deltoid at this visit and moving forward

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

· Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· Client’s PANNS has reduced by a total of 50% from the initiation of Invega sustenna

· When questioned about injection site pain, client states it is much better in the arm

· Client’s weight has increased by an additional 2.5 pounds (total of 4.5 pounds in a 2 month period). She is somewhat bothered by the weight gain and is afraid that her husband does not like it. He is not present at this visit as she brought herself

· Client likes how she feels on the Invega Sustenna but is wondering if there is another drug like it that would not cause the weight gain NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Decision Point Three
https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/06/mm/delusional_disorders/img/pill-red.pngContinue with the Invega Sustenna. Counsel client on the fact that weight gain from Invega Sustenna is not as much as what other drugs with similar efficacy can cause. Make appointment with a dietician and an exercise physiologist. Follow up in one month

Guidance to Student

Weight gain can occur with Invega Sustenna. It is modest in nature and can be controlled with proper nutrition and exercise. It is always a good idea to try and control a client’s weight through consultation with a dietician and exercise physiologist (life coach) before switching to another agent when a product is showing efficacy for at least 6 months.

Abilify Maintena is a good option for someone who has good response to abilify oral. Remember that Abilify does not bind to the D2 receptor for a great period of time (such as Invega) and can be less affective in certain individuals. Also, remember that akathisia can be a possible side effect. Once an IM long acting medication is given, the effects of the drug (both efficacious and untoward effects) can be maintained for a long duration (up to a month or longer). Tolerability and efficacy should be established with oral medication first before administering the first injection. Also a disadvantage to Abilify Maintena is a 2-week overlap of oral therapy is required due to effective blood levels lagging behind the induction dose. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Qsymia is a weight loss medication that is a combination of Phenteramine and Topiramate. It is only indicated to treat obesity. This client’s BMI (28.9 kg/M2) does not fit the definition of obesity (BMI >30 Kg/M2- Following from CDC website: Class 1: BMI of 30 to < 35, Class 2: BMI of 35 to < 40, Class 3: BMI of 40 or higher. Class 3 obesity is sometimes categorized as “extreme” or “severe” obesity). There are two things wrong with this therapy option. First, there are only a few occasions where add-on therapy to treat a side effect is acceptable and weight gain is not one of those scenarios. Secondly, Phenteramine has a lot of cardiovascular toxicities (such as elevated BP, HR, increased workload on the heart).

NURS 6630 Week 7 Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Pain
Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain

Pain can greatly influence an individual’s quality of life, as uncontrolled pain negatively impacts mood, concentration, and the overall physical and mental well-being of clients. Although pain can often be controlled with medications, the process of assessing and treating clients can be challenging because pain is such a subjective experience. Only the person experiencing the pain truly knows the intensity of the pain and whether there is a need for medication therapies. Sometimes, beliefs about pain and treatments for pain can have an adverse effect on the provider-client relationship. For this Assignment, as you examine the interactive case study consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with pain.Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain : NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment.

Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Required Readings
Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 10, “Chronic Pain and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009a). Stahl’s illustrated chronic pain and fibromyalgia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Chronic Pain and Fibromyalgia tab. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

Chapter 5, “Pain Drugs”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

amitriptyline
amoxapine
carbamazepine
clomipramine
clonidine (adjunct)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
desipramine
dothiepin
doxepin
duloxetine
gabapentin
imipramine
lamotrigine
levetiracetam
lofepramine
maprotiline
memantine
milnacipran
nortriptyline
pregabalin
tiagabine
topiramate
trimipramine
valproate (divalproex)
zonisamide
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2016). Pain: Hope through research. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/detail_chronic_pain.htm#3084_2

Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Required Media

Laureate Education (2016a). Case study: A Caucasian man with hip pain [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for pain and sleep/wake disorders.

The Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Assignment
Examine Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3
NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology- Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 10 Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Dementia
Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease

The Alzheimer’s Association defines dementia as “a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). This term encompasses dozens of cognitive disorders of impaired memory formation, recall, and communication. The care and treatment of clients with dementia is dependent on multiple factors, including the stage of dementia, comorbidities, family support, and even the care setting. In your role, as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must be prepared to not only treat clients with these various cognitive disorders, but also the multiple behavioral issues that often accompany them. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with dementia.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment.

Reference: Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). What is dementia? Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 13, “Dementia and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

donepezil
galantamine
memantine
rivastigmine
Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf

Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016h). Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.

The Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease Assignment
Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 6 Midterm
Question 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Question 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?

Question 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:

Question 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?

Question 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With ADHD
Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD

Not only do children and adults have different presentations for ADHD, but males and females may also have vastly different clinical presentations. They may also respond to medication therapies differently. For example, some ADHD medications may cause children to experience stomach pain, while others can be highly addictive for adults. In your role, as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must perform careful assessments and weigh the risks and benefits of medication therapies for clients across the lifespan. For this Assignment, you consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with ADHD. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Learning Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD Required Readings

Note: Review all materials from the Discussion.

Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. D. A., & Epstein, J. N. (1998). Revision and restandardization of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): Factors, structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 279-291.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD Required Media

Laureate Education (2016d). Case study: A young Caucasian girl with ADHD [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

The Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD Assignment
Examine Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD

Three decisions have been made concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point there will be three decisions. I will choose one out of the three and give the outcome. At each decision point these are the thoughts to ponder:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
***Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.***

Write paper addressing all section listed based on the decisions

Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD
BACKGROUND

Katie is an 8 year old Caucasian female who is brought to your office today by her mother & father. They report that they were referred to you by their primary care provider after seeking her advice because Katie’s teacher suggested that she may have ADHD. Katie’s parents reported that their PCP felt that she should be evaluated by psychiatry to determine whether or not she has this condition.

The parents give the PMHNP a copy of a form titled “Conner’s Teacher Rating Scale-Revised”. This scale was filled out by Katie’s teacher and sent home to the parents so that they could share it with their family primary care provider. According to the scoring provided by her teacher, Katie is inattentive, easily distracted, forgets things she already learned, is poor in spelling, reading, and arithmetic. Her attention span is short, and she is noted to only pay attention to things she is interested in. The teacher opined that she lacks interest in school work and is easily distracted. Katie is also noted to start things but never finish them, and seldom follows through on instructions and fails to finish her school work.

Katie’s parents actively deny that Katie has ADHD. “She would be running around like a wild person if she had ADHD” reports her mother. “She is never defiant or has temper outburst” adds her father.

SUBJECTIVE

Katie reports that she doesn’t know what the “big deal” is. She states that school is “OK”- her favorite subjects are “art” and “recess.” She states that she finds her other subjects boring, and sometimes hard because she feels “lost”. She admits that her mind does wander during class to things that she thinks of as more fun. “Sometimes” Katie reports “I will just be thinking about nothing and the teacher will call my name and I don’t know what they were talking about.”

Katie reports that her home life is just fine. She reports that she loves her parents and that they are very good and kind to her. Denies any abuse, denies bullying at school. Offers no other concerns at this time.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

The client is an 8 year old Caucasian female who appears appropriately developed for her age. Her speech is clear, coherent, and logical. She is appropriately oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. She demonstrates no noteworthy mannerisms, gestures, or tics. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect is bright. Katie denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no delusional or paranoid thought processes readily appreciated. Attention and concentration are grossly intact based on Katie’s attending to the clinical interview and her ability to count backwards from 100 by serial 2’s and 5’s. Insight and judgment appear age appropriate. Katie denies any suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Diagnosis: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive presentation

Decisions Made and Outcomes (Needed to formulate the paper) (Must use and formulate paper based off of the chosen decision. Then tell why the other two decision were not a good choice with in-text citations noted for each.)

Choices for Decision 1: Select what the PMHNP should do:

Begin Wellbutrin (bupropion) XL 150 mg orally daily
Begin Intuniv extended release 1 mg orally at BEDTIME
Begin Ritalin (methylphenidate) chewable tablets 10 mg orally in the MORNING
Decision Choice Chosen: Begin Ritalin (methylphenidate) chewable tablets 10 mg orally in the MORNING

***Explain why other two choice were rejected (not adequate choices)***

Outcome: RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE:

Client returns to clinic in four weeks
Katie’s parents report that they spoke with Katie’s teacher who notices that her symptoms are much better in the morning, which has resulted in improvement in her overall academic performance. However, by the afternoon, Katie is “staring off into space” and “daydreaming” again
Katie’s parents are very concerned, however, because Katie reported that her “heart felt” You obtain a pulse rate and find that Katie’s heart is beating about 130 beats per minute NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.
Choices for Decision 2: Select what the PMHNP should do:

Continue same dose of Ritalin and re-evaluate in 4 weeks
Change to Ritalin LA 20 mg orally daily in the MORNING
Discontinue Ritalin and begin Adderall XR 15 mg orally daily
Decision Choice Chosen: Change to Ritalin LA 20 mg orally daily in the MORNING

***Explain why other two choice were rejected (not adequate choices)***

Outcome: RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO:

Client returns to clinic in four weeks
Katie’s academic performance is still improved, and the switch to the LA preparation is lasting Katie throughout the school day
Katie’s reports of her heart feeling “funny” have gone away. Pulse was 92 during today’s office visit
Choices for Decision 3: Decision Point Three Select what the PMHNP should do next:

Maintain current dose of Ritalin LA and reevaluate in 4 weeks
Increase Ritalin LA to 30 mg orally daily
Obtain EKG based on current heart rate
Decision Choice Chosen: Maintain current dose of Ritalin LA and reevaluate in 4 weeks

***Explain why other two choice were rejected (not adequate choices)***

Outcome: Guidance to Student

RESULT FROM CHOOSING TO MAINTAIN CURRENT DOES OF RITALIN LA AND REEVALUATE IN 4 WEEKS

Guidance to Student

At this point, Katie’s symptoms are well controlled (her attention is sustained throughout the school day) and her side effects have gone away following change to a long-acting preparation. There is no indication at this point that the dose should be increased as it is always advisable to use the lowest effective dose of stimulant medication. Katie’s heart rate is appropriate for an 8 year old girl and an EKG would not be indicated based on her heart rate.

Make sure that this paper has at least 6 References from 2014. Please use in-text citations for each section of each decision.Don’t forget the ethical considerations for this assignment. Make it a section by itself.***

***Also please make sure when looking at the ethical consideration for this assignment that you look at how the Caucasian (male) ethnicity and pain medications interact.***

SOME RESOURCE

Note: Review all materials from the Discussion.

Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. D. A., & Epstein, J. N. (1998). Revision and restandardization of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): Factors, structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 279-291.

Course Texts These course texts are available through Stahl Online Resources http://stahlonline.cambridge.org/ Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

week 7 Decision Tree: Caucasian Man with Hip Pain

Pain often indicates the presence of a problem in the body. It can be really devastating and disturbing depending on the location, severity and nature. The three main types of pain include sensory hypersensitivity, neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain. Extreme pain can cause increased suffering and death associated with shocks and unconsciousness. However pain can be managed with medication even though the root cause of the pain needs to be determined for effective treatment. As such, this paper seeks to explore the assessment and treatment of pain using a case study involving a Caucasian man with hip pain (Laureate Education, 2016a). It also identifies the ethical considerations that affect treatment plan and communication with the clients.

Decision #1

I selected Amitriptyline 25 mg po QHS and titrate upward weekly by 25 mg to a max dose of 200 mg per day

Amitriptyline 25 mg is used for the treatment of depression and other mood and mental disorders. I selected this decision because the client appears to be depressed considering that he feels helpless at times even though he denies it (Laureate Education, 2016a). Another reason is because the drug is used to relieve pain at low dosages the reason why it was titrated to a maximum dose of 200mg daily (Stahl, 2014b). This medication increases the amount of serotonin neurotransmitters in the brain and thus acts as a first line treatment antidepressant for chronic pain.

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With this decision, I was hoping to manage the patient’s pain and improve his quality of life. On the other hand, I was seeking to manage his mental disturbances which often lead him to the dumps. Its application in the treatment of neuropathic pain has been reported by evidence-based research (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2016). This dosage also minimizes the chances of having adverse side effects on the patient which makes recovery faster. It was also expected that the curling of the toes would stop.

The difference between what was expected and what was achieved is quite minimal. For instance; the client came back after four weeks reporting the reduction of pain in a bigger range than the expected. He was also able to walk occasionally without crutches which weren’t expected to take place within a short time. These results demonstrate a more positive outcome of the medication than the expected. Another difference is that the curling of the toes had reduced and not eliminated as expected. The difference was due to the long time taken by the medication to initialize the effects in the body. The low dosage could also have delayed some of the expected results.

Decision Point Two

Continue current medication and increase dose to 125 mg at BEDTIME this week continuing towards the goal dose of 200 mg daily. Instruct the client to take the medication an hour earlier than normal starting tonight and call the office in 3 days to report how his function is in the morning

This decision was selected to help achieve the optimum dosage for the client in order to attain maximum results. The drug was also tolerated well by the patient and therefore, considering another drug change could have introduced new side effects and prolonged the recovery process. The reason for drug administration at bedtime sought to manage the side effects which include drowsiness which could affect the patient’s daytime activities (Stahl, 2014b). Calling the office on three days allows follow up and monitoring of the patients progress during the treatment. It will also help determine the tolerance of the patient to the drug.

This decision sought to achieve an optimum dosage for the patient. This helps in improving his recovery process. Moreover, the increase of medication dosage was hoping to reduce the pain to at the acceptable scale rating of 3 and improve the quality of the patient’s life (Stahl, 2014b). In addition, it sought to manage throbbing in the right leg of the client which he complained to have been affecting him adversely. The problem of curling toes was also being treated by the increase of this dosage.

The difference experienced is that the client reports a pain level of 4 contrary to the expected level of 3. A weight gain was observed by the client also. The difference resulted from the side effects of 125 mg of amitriptyline which includes weight changes (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Decision 3

Continue the current dose of Elavil of 125 mg per day; refer the client to a life coach who can counsel him on good dietary habits and exercise

I selected this decision because the client complained of weight gain and hence exercise and dietary advice would be of great help to him (Stahl, 2013). The continuation of drug was done because; the patient had demonstrated pain control and hence it was essential for maintenance and complete recovery. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.

This decision sought to achieve a complete recovery of the patient. This includes the elimination of pain and curling of the toes, change in the color of the leg and numbness as well as the side effects. Diet counselling also sought to manage the client’s weight and prevent the increase (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

This decision did not present any difference from what was expected.

Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations associated with communication and treatment of this patient includes confidentiality. The client’s confidentiality should be maintained during communication for privacy purposes. Additionally, the autonomy of the client during treatment should involve respecting of their rights and as well as involving them in decision making after giving them consent of the treatment plan (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Laureate Education (2016a). Case study: A Caucasian man with hip pain [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2016). Pain: Hope through research. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/detail_chronic_pain.htm#3084_2

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009a). Stahl’s illustrated chronic pain and fibromyalgia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Discussions and Assignments.