Examine and analyze effective performance indicators for staff and organizational goals.

Examine and analyze effective performance indicators for staff and organizational goals.

Examine and analyze effective performance indicators for staff and organizational goals. 150 150 Nyagu

HCS/475 v10 Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 – Leadership and Performance Development This course provides students with an overview of leadership theories to assist in the development of effective leadership skills. Students will discuss workplace change and the leader’s role in the change process, as well as examine and analyze effective performance indicators for staff and organizational goals. Key Takeaways Week One Topic: Leadership Theory Objective 1.1: Explain leadership theories. 1. “Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement” (Ledlow & Coppola, 2014, p. 13). 2. Great Man and Trait Theory a. Leaders are born with unique characteristics (heroes/highly influential) that predispose them to lead 1) Pros a) Helped in understanding traits 2) Cons a) No scientific validity with the theory b) Born to lead or not c) Male focused 3. Leader-centered theories focus on defining what a leader is. a. Formal leaders exercise legitimate authority conferred by a position within an organization. b. Informal leaders do not have a specified management role. For example, within a medical billing group there is a team member (who is not a supervisor) everyone seeks out if there are billing issues that baffle them. This staff member has no more authority than her peers, but she is able to lead the group to accomplish a task or solve a problem. 1) Focused on characteristics of leaders a) Intelligence b) Personality c) Abilities 4. Behavioral theories a. Basic premise 1) Great leaders are made, not born 2) Focuses on actions (behaviors) 3) People can become leaders via education and nurturing Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 2 of 14 b. Douglas McGregor 1) Theories a) Theory X i. Workers as drones without ambition, requiring coercion to achieve results b) Theory Y i. workers are self-motivated, creative, and enjoy working and taking on responsibilities c) Leader’s theory bias affects how followers are led 5. Situational theories a. Leadership behaviors range from authoritarian to permissive and vary based on current needs and future probabilities b. Fieldler’s Contingency Theory (1967) states that a leader is most effective when he or she matches their leadership style to situational factors. 1) An example might be how you would treat a recent graduate just entering the workplace compared to a seasoned professional within the department. c. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson (2001) expanded on Fieldler’s Theory. They believed the four distinct leadership styles are prescribed according to the readiness and ability of the followers. Objective 1.2: Differentiate between leadership and management. 1. Leadership a. A leader uses interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish specific goals. 1) Definitions 2) General definition contrast with characteristics within health care 2. Leader vs manager a. Management 1) A manager is an individual employed by an organization and is responsible for efficiently accomplishing the goals of the organization a. Management functions 1) 2) 3) 4) Planning Organizing Directing Controlling b. Levels of management 1) First level—first line manager 2) Middle level—supervises a number of first-level managers 3) Upper level—top executives to whom middle-level managers report c. Leaders 1) Leaders do not have to hold management positions 2) Managers have subordinates and leaders have followers 3) Management vs leadership a) Shorter time horizon vs. long-term vision b) Mission oriented vs vision followed by mission c) Maintenance of culture vs cultural development d. Leadership subset of management Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 3 of 14 Objective 1.3: Examine the relationship between personal characteristics and leadership effectiveness. 1. A leader must understand the importance of an emotionally and behaviorally intelligent style of leadership to ensure that their staff feel empowered and supported. a. Self-awareness—emotional and behavioral intelligence b. Emotional and behavioral intelligence (EQ/BQ) starts with self-awareness or an objective understanding of one’s emotional and behavioral wiring c. Self-awareness requires recognition and acceptance of the effect that an individual’s behavior has on others so that the individual can then mitigate those undesired effects d. Social awareness—leader must understand the behavioral attributes and needs of the people he or she leads 2. Leader must understand or be socially aware of the behavioral makeup of their organization’s employees Week Two Topic: Role of the Leader Objective 2.1: Examine different leadership styles. 1. Rensis Likert’s Michigan Study identified four basic leadership styles. a. Exploitative/authoritative b. Benevolent/authoritative c. Consultative/democratic d. Participative/democratic 2. Ohio State studies presented two dimensions of leadership (similar to Rensis Likert’s Michigan Study). a. Employee-oriented b. Production-oriented 3. Kurt Lewin leadership styles a. Autocratic leadership assumes individuals are motivated by external forces; therefore, the leader makes all decisions and directs the followers’ behaviors—for example, military assignment. b. Democratic leadership assumes individuals are motivated by internal forces; therefore, the leader uses participation and majority rule to make accomplishments. c. Laissez-faire leadership assumes individuals are motivated by internal forces and should be left alone to complete work; therefore, the leader provides no direction or facilitation. d. Bureaucratic leadership assumes individuals are motivated by external forces; therefore, the leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decisions and relies on organizational policies and rules. e. Transactional leadership is based on principles of social exchange theory in which social interaction between leaders and followers is essentially economic, and success is achieved when needs are met, loyalty is enhanced, and work performance is enhanced. f. Transformational leadership is focused on the growth and the development of followers to maximize potential. 1) 2) Increased motivation and morale lead to positive organizational change . This leadership style has attributes of charismatic leadership. g. Relational (connective) leadership places value on collaboration and teamwork. Interpersonal skills are used to promote collegiality in achieving goals. h. Shared leadership is an organizational structure in which several individuals share the responsibility for achieving organizational goals. Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 4 of 14 i. j. Traditional leaders understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships and the difference between the formal and informal structures within organizations. Servant leader—Leader is servant first. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve. 1) Characteristics of the servant leader a) Listening—Important skill for leader, they need to be reinforced by a deep commitment to listening intently to others. b) Empathy—Employees need to be accepted and recognized for their special and unique spirits. c) Healing—Healing one’s self and one’s relationship to others. Many people have broken spirits and have suffered from a variety of emotional hurts. d) Awareness—Helps to understand issues involving ethics, power, and values. It lends itself to being able to view most situations from a more integrated, holistic position. e) Persuasion—The servant leader seeks to convince others rather than coerce compliance. f) Conceptualization—To nurture employee’s abilities to dream great dreams. To look at a problem or an organization from a conceptualizing perspective means that one must think beyond day-to-day realities. g) Foresight—The ability to foresee the likely outcome of a situation is hard to define, but easier to identify. h) Stewardship—Assumes first and foremost a commitment to serving the needs of others. Objective 2.2: Analyze roles and responsibilities of leaders within health care organizations. 1. Effective leaders a. Use this relationship expertise to determine which frame is appropriate for a particular situation and to determine how best to approach challenges in the workplace b. Relate well to those around them, and help those around them maximize their own relationship skills c. Make it possible for their subordinates to reach, or at least strive to reach, their potential 2. Typical health care manager responsibilities a. b. c. d. e. f. Budget Management of resources Management of staff, including managing change Education and development of staff Quality and safety Strategic planning 3. Typical health care leader role a. b. c. d. e. f. Add value Inspires staff to reach new levels of performance Encourages decision-making at the point of service Empowers staff Uses the team to make decisions Provides mechanism for a blame-free discussion that leads to evaluation and improvement of processes (evidence-based, quality management) 4. How do health care manager and leader roles and responsibilities compare? a. How do they contrast? b. How is power determined or granted? Objective 2.3: Identify tools for motivating and empowering staff 1. Motivational theories Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 5 of 14 a. Content theories b. Process theories c. Reinforcement theory 1) 2) 3) 4) Operant conditioning Punishment Extinction Shaping 2. Staff development a. Needs assessment to evaluate the learning needs of a select population 1) There may be mandatory learning needs from a regulatory standpoint or educational needs based on new procedures and processes 2) A needs assessment allows leadership to systematically determine the learning needs of the staff b. Planning to prepare for learning, including obtaining materials and matching learner needs with educational methods 1) c. Leaders must understand what the learning objectives are and how they are matched with the educational methods. Is it a skill best taught in a skills lab, or is it theory best discussed in a classroom? It may require a combination of both methods. Implementation involves bringing together materials, methods, speakers, and learners 1) 2) Coordination of all materials, educators, and learners is needed for learning to take place This task requires the materials, practice time with new knowledge, and feedback on performance d. Evaluation is the investigative process to determine whether outcomes were achieved and to what extent 1) Educators should incorporate four evaluation criteria, including learner reaction, learning acquired, behavior change, and organizational effects e. Performance: promoting excellence f. Coaching 1) 2) Evaluating problems Ways to resolve problems g. Educational development 1) 2) Continuing education Individual or unit needs h. Maintaining certification and licensing 1) 2) Expectations of work roles Implications of supervision related to affected license Objective 2.4: Explain the importance of accountability 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Elements of ownership Individual accountability Team accountability Value of accountability Effects of accountability on decisions a. Shared decision accountability b. Acceptance of an error Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 6 of 14 6. Error management a. Process for change b. Process to promote excellence 7. Leader’s role Week Three Topic: Leadership Challenges Objective 3.1: Explain the role of leadership in creating an effective work group. 1. Establishing rules of engagement 2. Deconstructing the culture of individualism 3. Principles for teamwork: elements of good partnerships a. Equity b. Accountability c. Ownership 4. Creating a team-based culture a. Valuing differences 1) Diversity b. Individual roles within the context of a team 5. Working with the organization as a whole and with other departments 6. External customers and patients 7. Followers vs leaders: Who are effective followers? Objective 3.2: Explain the leader’s role in conflict management. 1. What is conflict? a. Where? b. Who? c. Why? 2. 3. 4. 5. Conflict situations Seeing the signs of conflict Approaches to handling conflict Conflict handling style a. May want students to do a self-assessment with TKI or comparable tool. Once completed, students can discuss implications to themselves and their leadership approach. Objective 3.3: Construct a change management plan. 1. Why make changes? a. b. c. d. Organizational performance Relationship with quality Iron Triangle of Health Care Leadership positive effect 2. Change theories a. Lewin’s Force Field Model 1) Change involves three elements Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 7 of 14 a) Unfreezing b) Moving c) Refreezing b. Lippitt’s phases of change 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) c. Diagnosis of problem Assessment of motivation to change Assessment of change agent’s motivation and resources Selecting progressive change objectives Choosing an appropriate role for the change agent Maintaining change once started Termination of helping relationship with the change agent Havelock’s model 1) 2) 3) Building a relationship Diagnosing the problem Acquiring relevant resources a) Choosing the solution b) Gaining acceptance c) Stabilization and self-renewal d. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation theory—the process of change e. Assessment 1) 2) 3) f. Identify the problem or opportunity for improvement Collect data Analyze data Planning—analysis of the who, when, and how of the change process 1) Managers need to plan for resources necessary to make the change, establish control points in the process, and provide frequent feedback g. Implementation—Managers must create a supportive climate for change 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Methods to change individuals: Involve key supporters of the change so their enthusiasm can motivate others. Methods to change groups: The greatest influence is achieved when groups are made up of closely related positions in the organizations. Time involved to create change Difficulty involved Knowledge Attitude Individual behavior Group behavior h. Evaluation 1) Evaluate effectiveness a) At each control point, monitor the operational effectiveness objectives b) Adjust as necessary to meet goals 2) Stabilize the change a) Maintain feedback and performance monitoring so old behaviors do not return i. Change agent strategies 1) Power-coercive 2) Normative-re-educative Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 8 of 14 3) Empirical-rational j. Resistance to change 1) 2) 3) Problem-solving change process guidelines Ways resistance to change manifested Actions to be avoided when implementing change a) b) c) d) Announce change without laying a foundation Ignore or offend powerful or influential people Violate authority and communication lines Overestimate your formal authority i. ii. Make a poor decision about what change is needed and not be open to critique of that decision Put people on the defensive e) Underestimate the perceived magnitude of change k. Benefits and disadvantages of change 1) 2) 3) Change can be positive or negative Personal beliefs about change Agree or disagree with process? Week Four Topic: Processes and Considerations for Leaders Objective 4.1: Analyze the responsibility of the leader in the delegation process. 1. Delegation defined/key elements a. Transferring responsibility and authority for a task to another member 1) It is not turning over work that the manager does not like 2. Five steps a. Define the task b. Decide on the delegate and level and role of the delegate c. Determine task expectations 1) SMARTER goals (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Trackable, Ethical, Recorded) a. Reach an agreement b. Monitor performance and provide feedback (checkpoints) c. Benefits to manager—will free manager to work on managerial tasks, such as planning and coordinating activities d. Benefits to staff 1) 2) 3) 4) Empowerment of the workforce Higher quality of work from allowing employees to have direct knowledge of products and services Enhanced employee motivation Increased personal accountability for outcomes e. Obstacles to delegation 1) 2) 3) f. Unsupportive environment An insecure delegator Ineffective delegation Effects of delegation on the workplace Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 9 of 14 1) 2) 3) Increased productivity Increased role and growth Liability if demand is too great and inappropriate for the role Objective 4.2: Analyze the problem-solving process. 1. Define the problem. a. Should be a descriptive and objective statement of the actual state of affairs b. May use tools like an affinity map, experimentation, or trial-and-error method 2. Gather the information. a. Collect facts b. Obtain relevant, valid, accurate, and detailed descriptions from appropriate people and sources 3. Analyze and categorize the information. 4. Develop the solution. a. Brainstorm possible solutions. 1) This may be a good time to include quality improvement and risk management tools, such as brainstorming and root cause analysis as an aside to build interest and application when students take HCS/451. b. Use creative thinking when moving from simple to more complex solutions. 1) Explain divergent and convergent thinking as it relates to potential solutions. 5. Make a decision based on the most feasible solution (e.g., group decisions, decision trees, murder board) 6. Implement the decision using the zone of acceptance to maximize success 7. Evaluate the solution once it is implemented and continually monitor to prevent staff from falling back to old processes Objective 4.3: Explain the element of decision-making for managers and leaders within health care organizations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Types of decisions Decision-making conditions Decision-making techniques Good decisions vs bad decisions process Decision-making defined a. Decision-making is a process whereby appropriate alternatives are weighed, and one is ultimately selected b. Problem-solving is a process when a dilemma is identified and corrected 6. Decision-making conditions a. Routine decisions are the type of decisions made when problems are relatively well-defined and common, and when established rules, policies, and procedures can be used to solve them b. Adaptive decisions are the type of decisions made when problems and alternative solutions are somewhat unusual and only partially understood c. Innovative decisions are the type of decisions made when problems are unusual and unclear, and creative solutions are necessary 7. Decision-making process a. Probability is the likelihood that an event will or will not occur b. Probability analysis is a calculation of expected risk made to accurately determine the probabilities of each alternative Copyright© 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Student Course Strategy Guide HCS/475 v10 Page 10 of 14 c. Objective probability is the likelihood that an event will or will not occur based on facts or reliable information d. Subjective probability is the likelihood that an event will or will not occur based on a manager’s personal judgment or beliefs e. Rationale (normative) decision-making model is a decision-making process based on logical, wellgrounded, and rational choices that maximize the achievement of objectives f. Descri …
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