PICO Question For high-risk patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (P) are non-pharmacological interventions (I) compared to pharmacological interventions (C) more effective and managing delirium as evidence by less positive CAM and RASS scores (O)?

Respond to this article/post with approximately 250 words per double spaced page. provide constructive feedback to the posts and make suggestions/recommendations to it . Please read all the entries and cross post to it .For the Johns Hopkins tool, grading the evidence is a 2-step process that involves specifying the level of evidence and the quality (high, good, low/major flaws). Be sure to address both when using this tool. Complete the Review Matrix

Sample Paper

Response to a Discussion Post

Thank you for your contribution. Douglas, I agree with you that patients living with severe mental illness consistently have high levels of morbidity and mortality than the general population. Severe mental illness is defined through the length of time and infirmity it produces (American Psychiatric Association., 2021). These diseases produce psychotic symptoms like schizoaffective and schizophrenia conditions and severe other disorder types like major depression and bipolar conditions. I support your point that most clients in severe mental illness population are recommended at least one antipsychotic or antidepressant medication. According to Correll et al. (2019), antipsychotics, as in this case, can help manage the patient’s psychosis symptoms. This may help them feel in control of their lives, mainly if they find trouble with psychotic symptoms. It is a fact that 4 out of 5 individuals with severe mental illness taking antipsychotics find themselves successful in managing their symptoms.

In severe mental illness situations in research, a PICO can help define the importance of exercise-based interventions compared to a sedentary lifestyle in refining quality of life and decreasing the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in severe mental illness patients taking antipsychotic medicine. PICO is a mnemonic process used in evidence-based practice to frame and respond to clinical or healthcare-based questions (Duke University.,2021). As a result of such a PICO in this case, conclusions can be made that regular exercise compared to patients using antipsychotic medicine may profoundly positively influence anxiety, depression, and ADHD (Abdul-Aziz Muhsen et al., 2020). It also helps get rid of stress, improve memory, help mental health patients sleep better, and boost their overall mood. This is because antipsychotics, in addition to gaining weight, generally are known to harm glucose metabolism, increase triglyceride and cholesterol levels, cause arterial hypertension and lead towards metabolic syndrome (Dayabandara et al., 2017).


Abdul-Aziz Muhsen, T., & abdulaziz Muhsen, M. (2020). The impact of physical activity and sport on mental health. Journal of Physical Education32(3), 160-165. https://doi.org/10.37359/JOPE.V32 (3)2020.1032

American Psychiatric Association. (2021, February 12). What is serious mental illness? SMI Adviser. https://smiadviser.org/about/serious-mental-illness

Correll, C. U., Sliwa, J. K., Najarian, D. M., & Saklad, S. R. (2019). Practical considerations for managing breakthrough psychosis and symptomatic worsening in patients with schizophrenia on long-acting injectable antipsychotics. CNS spectrums24(4), 354-370. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852918001098

Dayabandara, M., Hanwella, R., Ratnatunga, S., Seneviratne, S., Suraweera, C., & de Silva, V. A. (2017). Antipsychotic-associated weight gain: management strategies and impact on treatment adherence. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. Doi: 10.2147/NDT.S113099

Duke University. (2021, May 18). Evidence-based practice: PICO. LibGuides at Duke University Medical Center. https://guides.mclibrary.duke.edu/ebm/pico