DNP 420 TOPIC 4 DQ 2
Compare and contrast qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research. What are the differences in approaches? Reflect on the “Level of Evidence Plus Critical Appraisal of Its Quality Yields Confidence to Implement Evidence-Based Practice Changes”editorial article, located in the topic Resources. Which levels and criteria would be most appropriate when choosing primary research for a literature review? What are important criteria to consider to support your evidence-based project intervention?
Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research are comparable in that they all provide analysis of data however they differ based on the approach used to collect data. Qualitative data focuses on personal views, literature, and non-numerical data. Data found by interviews, focus groups, observations, cultural records, personal records, and documents are examples of qualitative data that is then interpreted. Quantitative data is a data collection process that tests processes among variables that yield numeric data. Data found by experiments, surveys, database reports, and questionnaires are used for numerical analysis. The questionnaires in quantitative data have yes/no or numerical answers in order to obtain numerical data whereas questionnaires or interviews during qualitative analysis uses open-ended questions that are either unstructured or semi-structured (What is qualitative vs. Quantitative Study? n.d.). Furthermore, researchers utilize a mixed-method research approach to examine both qualitative and quantitative aspects of a study. This type of research has increased within the healthcare setting and has demonstrated strengths in obtaining data to discover diverse perspectives and relationships based on the research question (Shorten & Smith, 2017).
Melnyk (2016) describes critical analysis of research in primary research to comply with a valid PICOT question. Primary research studies must have quantitative data that support the PICOT question. Quantitative studies that can be utilized as primary research include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case control studies, mixed-method studies, and a pilot/quality improvement study. Primary research articles will demonstrate critical aspects in order to support the evidence-based project intervention. For instance, critical appraisal of articles can be evaluated by tools such as the Rapid Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews of Clinical Interventions/Treatments. This tool enables the DNP learner to evaluate validity, type of research, methodology quality, results, individual patient data, intervention size, level of significance, similarity of patients from own DPI versus study group, feasibility, clinically important outcomes, risk and benefits of treatment, contraindications to implementation, and patient and/or family preferences and values to treatment (Melnyk, 2016). It is important to ensure the EBP intervention is valid, has positive patient outcomes, and resembles aspects in the tool mentioned above.
Melnyk, B. M. (2016). Level of evidence plus critical appraisal of its quality yields confidence to implement evidence-based practice changes. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 13(5), 337-339.
What is qualitative vs. Quantitative Study? GCU. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2022, from https://www.gcu.edu/blog/doctoral-journey/what-qualitative-vs-quantitative-study
I agree with you that qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research are comparable in that they all provide analysis of data. However, these research methods are contrasting properties that make them different. The difference determines suitability of these research methods to different research. Qualitative data focuses on personal views, literature, and non-numerical data (Rivero Jiménez et al., 2021). The focus also differentiate the type of data and presentation. For instance, qualitative data is represented in non-numerical format whereas quantitative data is purely in numerical form. Mixed-method research is unique as both numerical and non-numerical data can be used. Quantitative research obtains data by interviews, focus groups, observations, cultural records, and personal records. Frequently, quantitative data is considered to be organic and first-hand information (Cheek et al., 2021). As a result, quantitative research is prioritized in providing the most accurate data. The questionnaires in quantitative data have yes/no or numerical answers in order to obtain numerical data whereas questionnaires or interviews during qualitative analysis uses open-ended questions that are either unstructured or semi-structured. In healthcare settings, healthcare professionals can use different research methods.
- Cheek, J. (2021). Maintaining the integrity of qualitatively driven mixed methods: Avoiding the “this work is part of a larger study” syndrome. Qualitative Health Research, 31(6), 1015-1018. https://doi.org/10.1177/10497323211003546
- Rivero Jiménez, B., Conde-Caballero, D., & Juárez, L. M. (2021). Loneliness among the elderly in rural contexts: a mixed-method study protocol. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20, 1609406921996861. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406921996861