The first reference I will share is a qualitative research study conducted by Lowe and Shaw (2018) to understand student perceptions of feedback and to identify best practices in providing feedback. The first best practice is to provide constructive feedback that not only addresses the assignment but is transferable to other life situations. The second-best practice is to use motivating and encouraging language. Lowe and Shaw (2018) found that students are sensitive about feedback so word choice is important when deciding whom they will incorporate the feedback. This supports the work by Dweck (2015) on having a growth mindset and encouraging students to keep working towards their goals. The third recommendation is providing feedback in a timely manner. The researchers found that the students perceived that feedback was often given late, for example, after the next assignment is submitted. The fourth and fifth recommendations are detailed and above and beyond feedback. Students felt more motivated to improve when the feedback was specific to them and their work and included suggestions or resources on how to improve. The sixth and seventh student preferences are for feedback to be trustworthy and fair as well as based on course outcomes or rubrics. The eighth student preference is related to modality. The students perceived face-to-face as the best way to provide feedback; however, they understood the practicality of this option. They reported audio and visual feedback, therefore, was better than written as tone and body language can be used to interpret the information and encourage action. Lowe and Shaw concluded that these linguistic and practical elements of feedback can motivate students to improve their performance.
The second reference I will share discusses tips for audio feedback. Bradshaw (2021) writes that choosing the right technology with the right assessment is the first important tip for effective feedback. Not all assignments lend themselves to audio feedback but often written and audio together is very effective in engaging the students. Adding video technology is also an option. Bradshaw recommends using familiar technology, such as one included within an LMS. If the students have trouble accessing the information, they won’t be able to adjust. The second tip is to record feedback immediately after reviewing the assignment and to use a script to standardize the format. A standardized script is important to make sure all critical elements are addressed but it is also modifiable to the student. It keeps the instructor on task and supports motivating students to improve. This can help mediate any external factors that might be affecting the instructor such as being tired or rushed. The final tip is to store the recordings based on institutional guidelines. While this tip does not directly correlate with student motivation, it does provide a backup if the primary recording is deleted or corrupted.
The third reference offered is on Emotional Motivational Feedback Messages (EMFEM) in the online environment. Sarsar (2017) reported that EMFEM has been proven to increase engagement and motivation in the traditional classroom, but not online. In his literature review, he identified the importance of RMFEM to provide context clues and improve understanding. He analyzed student responses to three types of EMFEM: the semantic value of words, text fonts, and emoticons. He found that students preferred motivational positive feedback more than honest feedback. The students also reported appreciation of the changes in font, size, and color to emphasize key points; however, one student did not like the use of red as it can indicate a negative or bad. There was dissension about emoticons; some found value and increased perception of the student-instructor relationship, and some felt they are not comfortable with them in a professional academic environment. One incidental finding was that by the end, the instructor also felt that the emotional and motivational environment had improved their own motivation and emotions of the course. In his closing remarks, Sarsar recommended instructors identify what kind of instructor they wanted to be and then outline how they will make that happen.
- Bradshaw, M. J. (2020). Practical Tips for Use of Audio Feedback on Student Writing Assignments. Nurse Educator, 45(2), 66â€“67. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000681
- Dweck, C. (2015, September 22). Carol Dweck revisits the â€œgrowth mindset.â€ Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/09/23/carol-dweck-revisits-the-growth-mindset.html
- Lowe, T., & Shaw, C. (2019). Student Perceptions of the â€œBestâ€ Feedback Practices: An Evaluation of Student-Led Teaching Award Nominations at a Higher Education Institution. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 7(2), 121â€“135.
- Sarsar, F. (2017). Student and Instructor Responses to Emotional Motivational Feedback Messages in an Online Instructional Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, 16(1), 115â€“127.
Thank you for your contribution. Generally, some peer-reviewed resources in research are completed using Qualitative research studies, which involve gathering, examining, and interpreting non-numerical data like language (Mcleod 2019). This type of research may help comprehend how individuals subjectively observe and give meaning to their social reality. As you have revealed, these studies can be completed to help understand student perceptions on feedback identifying best practices in providing feedback. Feedback is information provided to a learner about their performance relative to the learning outcomes. Feedback must aim at improvement in the students’ learning. It redirects the learner’s actions to attain a goal by positioning effort and activity with the outcome (Papi et al., 2019). While providing feedback, numerous practices require consideration. These include making the student feel safe, stressing on teamwork, using proactive language, asking guiding questions, using the visuals and checking for understanding. As highlighted by Bradshaw, I agree with your point that choosing the right technology with the right assessment remains a significant tip for efficient feedback. Affording efficient feedback for learning is among the best means to enhance student performance. Positive feedback allows instructors to build and uphold a conversation over time. Education technology allows instructors to help students on an individual basis. With the right technology, instructors afford timely, efficient feedback with the power to attain greater learning. It’s also a fact that EMFEM, as a best practice of providing feedback messages to learners, involves motivational approaches and emotional content for inspiring students to learn more, focusing on a particular topic (Sarsar 2017).
- Mcleod, S. (2019, February 5). Qualitative vs quantitative research. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/qualitative-quantitative.html#
- Papi, M., Rios, A., Pelt, H., & Ozdemir, E. (2019). Feedback‐seeking behaviour in language learning: Basic components and motivational antecedents. The Modern Language Journal, 103(1), 205-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12538
- Sarsar, F. (2017). Student and Instructor Responses to Emotional Motivational Feedback Messages in an Online Instructional Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 16(1), 115-127. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1124912