# Discuss the sampling strategy used in this study and if it resulted in a representative sample.

## Discuss the sampling strategy used in this study and if it resulted in a representative sample.

Discuss the sampling strategy used in this study and if it resulted in a representative sample. 150 150 Nyagu

Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS
Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS

(1).Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS The purpose of this assignment is to compare basic functions in Excel and SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and use this information to describe the sample.
For this assignment, students will utilize Excel with the Data Analysis ToolPak and SPSS Statistics and the \”Example Dataset\” to complete the assignment. Refer to the Topic Materials for assistance with enabling the Data Analysis ToolPak on a Mac or PC.
Part 1:
Complete the following steps in both Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics.
Calculate mean, median, and mode for the variables \”Annual Income\” and \”Age.\” Show the appropriate summary tables for these measures from both Excel and SPSS. Include the other descriptive statistics that are a part of the summary output in Excel and SPSS. Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS
Create histograms to show the distribution for \”Annual Income\” and \”Age.\” Copy and paste the histograms from Excel and export the histogram from SPSS into the Word document for this assignment.
Create frequency tables that include counts and percentages for smoking status, employment status, exercise level, and education level. Show the tables in the Word document for this assignment.
Part 2:
Based upon the Part 1 activities, write a 250-500 word interpretation that addresses the following.
Discuss the sampling strategy used in this study and if it resulted in a representative sample.
Discuss what you are able to ascertain about the sample from the descriptive statistics.
Explain what other variables the research team could have included to gain a better understanding of the population.
General Requirements
Submit one Word document for the Part 1 assignment content and a second Word document for Part 2 of the assignment. Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.
(2).Calculating Confidence Intervals

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The purpose of this assignment is to practice calculating confidence intervals.
For this assignment, students will utilize Excel and SPSS Statistics and the \”Example Dataset.\”
Using the \”Example Dataset,\” complete the following:
Based on a normal distribution curve, calculate the probability of an individual being 60 years or older in this population. Show the Excel and SPSS formulas or your hand calculations. Include screenshots as needed to illustrate this.
Using the sample standard deviation of age as an estimate of the population standard deviation, calculate by hand the standard error of the mean. Show your calculations and the answer.
Calculate by hand a 95% confidence interval for \”Age\” based on the sample mean. Use SPSS to verify your answer. Include your calculations and screenshots of the SPSS output.
Interpret the confidence interval for age and explain the three pieces of information needed to calculate a confidence interval.
Submit one Word document that includes all of the assignment deliverables.
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS
You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Practicing application of descriptive statistics

Part 1.

Calculating mean, median and mode for Annual Income and Age variables

Table 1. Excel output of descriptive statistics for age and annual income

Age Annual_Income
Mean 39.93 34766.67
Standard Error 2.17 4176.48
Median 41.00 28000.00
Mode 42.00 28000.00
Standard Deviation 11.90 22875.50
Kurtosis -0.79 -0.61
Skewness -0.09 0.64
Range 43.00 80000.00
Minimum 18.00 5000.00
Maximum 61.00 85000.00
Sum 1198.00 1043000.00
Count 30.00 30.00
Confidence level (95.0%) 4.44 8541.85

Table 2. SPSS output of descriptive statistics for age and annual income Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS

Statistic Std. Error
Age Mean 39.93 2.173
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 35.49
Upper Bound 44.38
5% Trimmed Mean 39.98
Median 41.00
Variance 141.651
Std. Deviation 11.902
Minimum 18
Maximum 61
Range 43
Interquartile Range 19
Skewness -.091 .427
Kurtosis -.791 .833
Annual_Income* Mean 34766.67 4176.476
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 26224.81
Upper Bound 43308.52
5% Trimmed Mean 33759.26
Median 28000.00
Variance 5.233E8
Std. Deviation 22875.500
Minimum 5000
Maximum 85000
Range 80000
Interquartile Range 37000
Skewness .645 .427
Kurtosis -.610 .833

Histogram for age and annual income

Figure 1. Excel output of histogram for age

Figure 2. Excel output of histogram for annual income

Figure 3. SPSS output of histogram for age

Figure 4. SPSS output of histogram for annual income

Frequency tables of counts and percentage for smoking status, employment status, exercise level, and education level

Table 3. Excel output of frequency tables for smoking status

Frequency Percentage
No 18 60
Yes 12 40

Table 4. Excel output of frequency tables for education level

Frequency Percentage
Less than high school 10 33.3
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Table 5. Excel output of frequency tables for exercise level

Frequency Percentage
0 1 3.3
20 1 3.3
25 1 3.3
40 2 6.7
45 1 3.3
50 5 16.7
60 2 6.7
65 3 10.0
70 1 3.3
75 2 6.7
80 4 13.3
90 1 3.3
100 1 3.3
110 2 6.7
120 1 3.3
150 1 3.3
200 1 3.3

Table 6. Excel output of frequency tables for employment status

Frequency Percentage
No 13 43.3
Yes 17 56.7

Table 7. SPSS output of frequency tables for smoking status

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid No 18 60.0 60.0 60.0
Yes 12 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Table 8. SPSS output of frequency tables for education level

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Less than high school 10 33.3 33.3 33.3
Graduated high school 10 33.3 33.3 66.7
Graduated college 10 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Table 9. SPSS output of frequency tables for exercise level

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
20 1 3.3 3.3 6.7
25 1 3.3 3.3 10.0
40 2 6.7 6.7 16.7
45 1 3.3 3.3 20.0
50 5 16.7 16.7 36.7
60 2 6.7 6.7 43.3
65 3 10.0 10.0 53.3
70 1 3.3 3.3 56.7
75 2 6.7 6.7 63.3
80 4 13.3 13.3 76.7
90 1 3.3 3.3 80.0
100 1 3.3 3.3 83.3
110 2 6.7 6.7 90.0
120 1 3.3 3.3 93.3
150 1 3.3 3.3 96.7
200 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Table 10. Excel output of frequency tables for employment status

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid No 13 43.3 43.3 43.3
Yes 17 56.7 56.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Part 2.

The analysis reveals that the participants had a mean age of 39.93 years and mean annual income of \$34,766.67. A review of the collected data for age and annual income reveals that there is a 95% probability of the mean age of the population being between 35.49 years and 44.38 years. In addition, there is a 95% probability of the mean annual income of the population being between \$26,224.82 and \$43,308.52 (see Tables 1 & 2).

Although the sampling strategy has not been described, it resulted in a representative sample as indicated by the participants’ spread across the different demographic groups. All the age groups are well represented as shown in the bell-shaped chart for the histogram (see Figures 1 & 3). Still, the study would have recruited a better distribution of annual income as most of the participants earned less than the mean annual income (see Table 2 and Figures 2 & 4). Further review of the smoking status reveals that 40% of the population are smokers while 60% are non-smokers (see Tables 3 & 7). A review of the education level reveals equal spread across the three education levels with 33.3% of the population having less than high school education, 33.3% having graduated from high school, and 33.3% graduated from college (see Tables 4 & 8). A review of the employment status reveals that 56.7% of the population is employed while 43.3% is unemployed (see Tables 6 & 10). In this respect, the demographic characteristics of the sample show that it is representative of the population with the different population characteristics well represented.

Other than the presented variables, the research team could have gained a better understanding of the population by collecting data on ethnicity and marital status as they have implications for health behavior. Ethnicity has implications for health behavior through genetics and cultural influences. Li et al. (2016) expounds on the influences of ethnicity by explaining that there is a need to develop culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions to enhance healthy behavior among members of any population. Pandey et al. (2019) explains that marital status is both a cause and consequence of health behaviors through influencing economic well-being, and physical and mental health. In this respect, including ethnicity and marital status could help in gaining a better understanding of the general health behaviors of the population as well as relationships between health determinants. Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS.

Based on a normal distribution curve, calculate the probability of an individual being 60 years or older in this population.

The distribution of ages of the participants range from 18 years to 61 years. These ages are approximately normally distributed with a mean age of 39.93 years and a standard deviation of 11.9. The probability of a member of the population being 60 years of age or older is calculated as:

= NORM.DIST(60, 39.93, 11.9, TRUE) = 0.9542

Therefore, the probability of a member of the population being 60 years of age or older is:

= 1 – 0.9542 = 0.0458 or approximately 4.58%.

Using the sample standard deviation of age as an estimate of the population standard deviation, calculate by hand the standard error of the mean. Show your calculations and the answer.

Standard error = standard deviation / (√sample size) = 11.9 / √30 = 2.1726

Standard error = 2.17

The hand calculated figure for standard error of age matches the figures presented in the Excel output of the descriptive statistics for age (see Table 2).

Calculate by hand a 95% confidence interval for \”Age\” based on the sample mean. Use SPSS to verify your answer. Include your calculations and screenshots of the SPSS output.

The sample has a mean age of 39.93 and standard error of 2.17. 95% confidence interval encompasses 95% of the area of the normal distribution, which is 1.96 standard deviations of the mean (z value). The confidence interval values are calculated as: Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS

Margin of error = z value * standard error = 1.96 * 2.17 = 4.25

Lower limit = 39.93 – 4.25 = 39.93 – 4.25 = 35.68

Upper limit = 39.93 + 4.25 = 39.93 + 4.25 = 44.18

95% CI (35.68, 44.18)

Interpret the confidence interval for age and explain the three pieces of information needed to calculate a confidence interval.

The hand calculated value is 95% CI (35.68, 44.18) while the value from the SPSS output is 95% CI (35.49, 44.38). The two values have slight differences at approximately 0.2. The difference is likely caused by approximations when making the hand calculations.

Three pierce of information were used to hand calculate the confidence interval. They included the z value, standard error and mean. Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS

References

Li, J., Thompson, T., Richards, T. & Steele, B. (2016). Racial and ethnic differences in health behaviors and preventive health services among prostate cancer survivors in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 13, 160148. DOI: 10.5888/pcd13.160148

Pandey, K., Yang, F., Cagney, K., Smieliauskas, F., Meltzer, D. & Ruhnke, G. (2019). The impact of marital status on health care utilization among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicine, 98(12), e14871. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014871 Practicing Application of Descriptive Statistics in Excel and SPSS 