Differentiating Research Assignment

Differentiating Research Assignment

Differentiating Research Assignment 150 150 Peter

Differentiating Research Assignment

This assignment aims to assist learners in understanding the differences in various types of research studies and, more specifically, a systematic review, quantitative and qualitative research study/article.

Please use the FSCJ library learning commons EBSCO host Database or Database of Choice and Select a (1) Systematic review article, (2) Quantitative research article, and ( 3) Qualitative research article.

Directions

Heading: List the name of the Systematic Review Research Article.

1. Define A Systematic Review.

2. Introduction: Provide a brief overview of the article and describe how many articles were included in the systematic review.

3. Identify and discuss the “level of evidence” for the article based on the level of evidence scale.

4. List the complete reference in APA format for the article you located, including the doi on the Reference page (double spaced; hanging indent).

Heading: List the name of the Quantitative Research Article.

1. Define Quantitative (QT) Research.

2. Introduction: Provide a brief overview about the article.

3. Discuss the specific steps (methodology) the author highlighted in the article compared to Fain (2021) chapter 9, selecting a quantitative research design. Make a statement of how the steps in the article are "unique" to quantitative research to demonstrate your knowledge of differences.

4. Identify and discuss the “level of evidence” for the article based on the level of evidence scale.

5. List the complete reference in APA format for the article you located, including the doi on the Reference page (double spaced; hanging indent).

Heading: List the name of the Qualitative Research Article.

1. Define Qualitative (QL) Research.

2. Introduction: Provide a brief overview about the article.

3. Discuss the specific steps (methodology) the author highlighted in the article compared to Fain (2021) chapter 10, selecting a qualitative research design. Make a statement of how the steps in the article are "unique" to qualitative research to demonstrate your knowledge of differences.

4. Identify and discuss the “level of evidence” for the article based on the level of evidence scale.

5. List the complete reference in APA format for the article you located, including the doi on the Reference page (double spaced; hanging indent).

Heading: Conclusion:

Answer the following question: Overall, did this assignment assist you in understanding the difference between a Systematic review, Quantitative, and Qualitative research study?

Sample Paper

Differentiating Research Categories

Systematic Review

(Shen et al., 2017) The impact of frailty and sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes in older patients undergoing gastrectomy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

A systematic review is a research design where data is obtained from existing research articles. Researchers apply organized methods in searching, organizing, and evaluating the relevant existing articles to their topic of interest to gather the data. Most commonly, in systematic reviews, the researchers select randomized controlled trials that had been previously conducted by others and analyze them to provide a conclusive answer to the topic of interest. Systematic reviews can either be quantitative, where the analyzed articles contain numerical data or qualitative, where the articles included are qualitative in nature. The systematic review process involves a series of steps, including formulating a specific research question, developing a protocol for the study including the rationale for the review and eligibility criteria, developing a search strategy, conducting a comprehensive search of the relevant literature, critically appraising the identified material to determine whether they qualify for inclusion or not. Once the articles are verified for inclusion into the study, the data is extracted and using the established methods synthesized to draw results. The findings are then detailed in a report presented to the relevant societies for publication. One of the advantages of a systematic review is the results are more trustworthy since they gather their results from other studies such as randomized controlled studies, which are relatively high quality. However, a major shortcoming is that they are time-consuming and cover a specific area that might not take into account other related factors that might affect the findings.

Shen et al.’s (2017) article is an example of a systematic review research article. The researchers conducted the study to determine how frailty and sarcopenia affect the postoperative outcomes among older patients with gastric cancer. While there are several studies on gastric cancers, there are no systematic reviews to determine how gastric cancer patients are affected by frailty and sarcopenia postoperative; therefore, the need for the study. To gather the relevant data, researchers searched for articles from Embase, PubMed, and Medline websites to identify relevant articles. 500 articles were first identified, and after the screening process, they identified three prospective and five retrospective cohort studies that were relevant for their study. Of the eight articles selected, 7 focused on sarcopenia, while 1 focused on frailty. The article aimed to find how sarcopenia and frailty reflect postoperative outcomes for older patients undergoing gastrectomy. The sampled documents guided the article’s conclusion that sarcopenia and frailty had adverse effects on the postoperative outcomes of older patients. The article’s evidence level is I since it integrates a systematic review with meta-analysis. This is the highest level of evidence in research, and the results are usually accurate and can be implemented in a clinical setting.

Quantitative Research

(Dillon et al., 2017) Higher C-reactive protein levels predict postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing major elective surgery: a longitudinal nested case-control study.

Quantitative research (QT) is a systematic process involving collecting quantifiable data and analyzing statistical and mathematical techniques to draw logical conclusions. The research involves interacting directly with the study participants from which the data is collected for further analysis. The participants are usually sampled from the whole population to ensure accurate representation and give the studies external validity. This method of research is mostly used in social and natural sciences. Methods used to gather the raw data included surveys, questionnaires, opinion polls, and conducting experiments. The main aim of quantitative research is to establish relationships between variables, determine trends and averages, make predictions about the topic of study, or generalize the results to the general population. The methods involved in quantitative research includes experimental, where the researcher manipulates variables to determine their impact on other variables; surveys where researchers distribute questionnaires to specific populations to gather the information; systematic observations, where the researcher collects data through direct observation of their interest population and secondary research; in this method, the researchers collect data from the existing data records which had been collected for other purposes for example data from longitudinal studies. Some of the advantages of quantitative research are that the results are more accurate and reliable sources of information, and the chances of bias are minimal due to the rigorous methods used.

Dillon et al.’s article is a quantitative Case-control study aimed at detecting blood-based postoperative delirium for patients undergoing surgery. The article’s methodology entailed the collection of plasma from dementia-free patients undergoing noncardiac surgery for analysis. The plasma of the patients was collected both preoperatively and postoperatively and placed in cohort studies for statistical analysis. The article is a level IV unique quote evidence-based since the design is a control cohort study whose results rely solely on the outcome of the sampled cohorts.

Qualitative Research (QL)

(Schoenfeld et al., 2018) Sustained preoperative opioid use is a predictor of continued use following spine surgery.

Qualitative Research encompasses research that utilizes non-numerical data collected and analyzed to understand opinions, concepts, and ideologies. It is commonly used in researching social sciences and humanities, including anthropology, education, health sciences, sociology, and history. Qualitative research is used to understand the participants’ experiences and opinions, giving the researchers an in-depth understanding of the topic. Most researchers use them to generate ideas and topics that researchers should then focus on. There are five approaches to qualitative research, including ethnography, where the researchers live among their population of interest such as communities and organizations in order to understand them better; grounded theory; the researchers, develop theories inductively after collecting extensive data on the topic of interest. Phenomenological approach; the researchers describe and interpret a phenomenon by researching the lived experiences of their participants. Under the action research approach, the participants and researchers collaborate to describe how theory affects practice driving social change. In the narrative approach, the researcher investigates how stories are told to gain an understanding of the participant’s perception of their experiences. Qualitative research methodologies include observations, where the researchers document what they have observed in the field. In focus groups, the researchers ask questions and generate discussions among the participants to gain an understanding of their experiences. Interviews are one-on-one conversations where the researchers ask the participants questions. Surveys; the researchers provide written questions to their audience. Some of the advantages of qualitative research include flexibility; the process of data collection can change as new data emerges. Data is collected in the natural environment, giving it more credibility. It is possible to expose latent problems that researchers can focus on through qualitative research.

Schoenfeld et al.’s article is qualitative research that utilizes interviews to link preoperative use of opioids and postoperative opioid use risk factors. The study results were obtained from interviews of TRICARE insurance claims of Lumbar surgery patients between 2006-2014. The patients’ preoperative, short-lived, postoperative, and prolonged opioids use in the surgical period was recorded. Any other associated risks or demographic factors of the patients were collected for interpretation. The authors used Cox proportional-hazard models to identify risk factors of pre and postoperative opioid use. The evidence-based practice article is level VI, relying on a single qualitative study utilizing indirect interviews. Indirect interviews are prone to distortion, questioning the reliability of the data collected.

Conclusion.

The assignment was essential in learning the differences that exist between different types of studies. I have learned some of the key features to look for when determining whether an article is qualitative, quantitative, or a systematic review through the assignment. For example, I have learned that systematic research includes a review of other existing materials. They can be qualitative or quantitative; however, a major characteristic is that they are specific in nature, answering a specific practical question. They also include data from various articles commonly randomized controlled trials, and in their methodologies, they included eligibility criteria and search strategy. Quantitative research mainly deals with statistical data, and it focuses on determining relationships between the dependent and independent variables. Qualitative research focuses on examining the lived experiences and opinions of their participants. Qualitative research gathers more information about a topic that gives a better understanding of the community and their experiences and generates research questions, which researchers can further explore using quantitative and systematic reviews.

References

Dillon, S. T., Vasunilashorn, S. M., Ngo, L., Otu, H. H., Inouye, S. K., Jones, R. N., … & Libermann, T. A. (2017). Higher C-reactive protein levels predict postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing major elective surgery: a longitudinal nested case-control study. Biological psychiatry81(2), 145-153.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322316322314

Schoenfeld, A. J., Belmont Jr, P. J., Blucher, J. A., Jiang, W., Chaudhary, M. A., Koehlmoos, T., … & Haider, A. H. (2018). Sustained preoperative opioid use is a predictor of continued use following spine surgery. JBJS100(11), 914-921.

https://journals.lww.com/jbjsjournal/fulltext/2018/06060/Sustained_Preoperative_Opioid_Use_Is_a_Predictor.2.aspx

Shen, Y., Hao, Q., Zhou, J., & Dong, B. (2017). The impact of frailty and sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes in older patients undergoing gastrectomy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics17(1), 1-8.

https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0569-2