Developing Theories in Health Education
When it comes to theories, the different levels of intervention can help with health initiatives because they cover three major aspects of an individual’s life, as well as the health choices they make. In our reading, we learned that there are 3 levels of intervention:
Intrapersonal-internal factors (i.e., skills, knowledge, faith, religion, values, etc.)
Interpersonal-external factors (i.e., how friends/family can influence us via advice, morals, etc.)
Community-social systems (i.e., laws, rules, regulations, etc.)
When developing health initiatives, using all three would be most beneficial because those three levels have a great impact on one’s choices. For starters, some people have a very strong moral compass and finding health initiatives that compliment those values would be recipe for success. Also, having the people that are closest to this person being on the same side, or values you are trying to achieve, would also maneuver the person to accept these initiatives. Finally, more times than not, people are going to follow rules and regulations set in place for many reasons, such as fear of consequences or simply agreeing with them; however, having rules set in place that go against that person’s belief system could lead to insubordination.
For example, the COVID vaccine. There was a study done on factors that influence young adults in Pakistan to take the COVID vaccine and the results showed that the younger, more educated individuals were less likely to obtain a COVID vaccine just because its being pushed on them, for the fact that many participants felt they needed more information on the safety and effectiveness in the vaccine in order for the social norm on getting the vaccine to be a positive influence (Ullah et al., 2021). With this being said, being there are rules for many places of business set in place, currently, that are requiring their employees to get the vaccine to stay employed, this has caused an uproar. While there are some who abide this with no problem, there are many others who are choosing to walk away from their careers because of it. The regulation to require the vaccine goes against these people’s beliefs and values, which in turn has caused them to revolt. The individuals who are not flighting this regulation are either people who have gotten the vaccine already-whether it was for their health or someone’s close to them-people who value their career more than their values, or people who don’t feel that being forced to take a vaccine goes against their rights. The intrapersonal and interpersonal interventions were more successful among these people when they were more inclined to wear a mask, even if they didn”t want to or agree with it, because they didn’t feel it was infringing on their rights, as well as because they needed to in order to go shopping or other necessary living situations. Once that was taken a step further to forcing people to inject themselves with something, that’s when the community intervention stopped working.
Developing Theories in Healthcare
Thank you for your great discussion on different levels of intervention that cover three significant aspects of an individual’s life and their health choices. The three levels of intervention, including intrapersonal-internal factors, interpersonal-external factors, and community social systems, play a significant role in the life of patients as it has a substantial impact on their choices (Hayden, 2017). I think these interventions and other theories in health education help the key stakeholders, including healthcare providers and patients, understand and explain some of the health behaviors. Besides, it guides in the development and implementation of different initiatives. I agree with your insight that some people have a powerful moral compass, and finding health initiatives that complement those values would be the recipe for success. Klusmann et al. (2018) suggested that people need to expect that specific behavior leads to desired health outcomes. They need to believe that they can perform the appropriate behavior to reach the desired effect, such as self-efficacy beliefs. I agree that people will follow the rules and regulations for various reasons, such as fear of consequences. Laws against that person’s belief system could lead to insubordination.
Workplace violence is one of the common problems in my workplace setting. Nurses report several cases of sexual harassment, bullying, spitting, and racial discrimination (Bernardes et al., 2020). The weekly report gathered by the frontline nurses depicts that the less-educated patients participated in these forms of violence. Language barriers among the patients contribute to violence in my workplace. Some experience difficulty communicating with the nurses and the ED, causing an uproar. There exist a lot of violence despite rules that forbid any form of violence in my workplace setting. Racial discrimination is another form of violence in my workplace as nurses and doctors experience difficulty in their performance as the community, patients, and other staff neglect them due to differences in their skin color. I felt satisfied with how nurse managers handled cases in my work setting. HR developed an excellent reporting system that helps individuals report violence cases in the workplace. There were interpreters in every department of the organization who helped in translation to facilitate communication between nurses and patients. Community education is another solution that helps in reducing workplace violence. During a round-table meeting held by the key stakeholders, including nurse managers and other frontline healthcare professionals, they saw the need to provide the community with flyers and other written materials addressing the effects of violence within our institution.
- Bernardes, M. L. G., Karino, M. E., Martins, J. T., Okubo, C. V. C., Galdino, M. J. Q., & Moreira, A. A. O. (2020). Workplace violence among nursing professionals. Revista brasileira de medicina do trabalho, 18(3), 250.
- Dr. Hayden, J. (2017). Introduction to Health Behavior Theory (third edition). Jones & Barlett Learning
- Klusmann, V., Gow, A. J., Robert, P., & Oettingen, G. (2021). Using theories of behavior change to develop interventions for healthy aging. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76(Supplement_2), S191-S205.