Describe the purpose of the epidemiologic profile and the health issue(s) it addresses.

Describe the purpose of the epidemiologic profile and the health issue(s) it addresses.

Describe the purpose of the epidemiologic profile and the health issue(s) it addresses. 150 150 Nyagu

PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology
PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology

An epidemiologic profile is a summary of a significant public health issue, or issues, in your community, county, state, or country. An epidemiological profile helps to coordinate activities and policies from various agencies and organizations to improve health.

Review the available data, reports, and documents for your locale. Assess how the methods of epidemiology (study designs, data collection, measures of association, etc.) are used to determine who needs what services, where the services are needed, and how those services should be delivered. Define your community as your city, metropolitan area, or county and write a 2,000-2,250 word epidemiological profile (word limit excludes references and title page) PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology. The profile can be a general profile that provides a landscape picture of several significant chronic and infectious diseases in your defined community, or it can be a specific profile that targets one health issue, such as diabetes, asthma, STDs, flu, heart disease, obesity, alcohol abuse, or other drug use. Include the following:

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Executive Summary

Describe the purpose of the epidemiologic profile and the health issue(s) it addresses. Discuss its importance to the community and how it will be utilized.
Summarize the key findings from your review of available data, reports, and documents for the community.
Introduction

Describe the defined community and population using demographic and socio-economic information and data.
Briefly describe the history and cultural background of the community.
Explain any unique contextual information that pertains to the public health of the defined community.
Describe any key public health projects, grants, or existing epidemiology-related working groups or committees in the community/county PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.
Description of Available Data

Identify at least two different data sources relevant to your profile. Discuss data from these sources and their relation to the issue or community.

Discuss the methods used in the data collection process (data source and organization providing the data; how often the data are collected; data limitations including response rates, missing data, selection of participants, etc.). Potential data sources and databases might include the following depending on what is available for your community or county:

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data
Youth risk behavioral survey
Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program data
CDC Wonder (multiple data sources)
County health rankings data (multiple data sources)
Alcohol-related disease impact data
Demographic health survey data (international)
Global school-based student health survey (international)
Local evaluation reports from the department/ministry of health or other nonprofit organizations
Interpretation of Results Regarding Key Health Issue

Size and magnitude of the measures
Trends and comparisons
Economic costs
Discussion of Problems and Strategies

Discuss disparities, limitations, and gaps in the information available regarding the health issue(s).
Describe potential public health strategies to address these gaps.
Use graphs and tables where appropriate.
Conclusion

You are required to cite to at least five sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

General Requirements

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competency:

MPH

2.1 Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

MSN Public Health Nursing

6.2 Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

Historical Review of Epidemiology

Key individuals and historical events have helped shape the field of epidemiology. Research the following individuals and their roles in shaping contemporary epidemiology:

John Graunt
James Lind
Edward Jenner
Ignaz Semmelweis
John Snow
Choose three of the individuals from your research. In a 1,000-1,250 word paper, describe the epidemiological advancements that were influenced by these individuals. Include the following:

Describe the disease and the event. Using descriptive epidemiology, discuss how common the disease was at the time, who was infected, when it occurred (time of year or season), and the mode of transmission. If the individual is not associated with a specific disease, discuss a significant disease happening during that period.
Discuss how the individuals influenced or advanced epidemiological methods and the process they used to describe and control disease. Discuss how their contributions helped to inform the definition of epidemiology. Consider whether they used qualitative, quantitative, or both types of data collection methods, and the approach they used to test their hypotheses.
Discuss how similar epidemiological methods have been used to understand one current public health issue (not one for each individual). Discuss the key research studies used to understand the risk factors associated with the problem or disease. Two potential examples include lung cancer (Doll and Hill, 1950) or cardiovascular disease and the Framingham Heart Study (Drawber, Meadors, & Moore, 1950; Kannel, 2000).
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for succes.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Topic 2: Disease Surveillance and Measurement

Objectives:

Evaluate the effectiveness of disease surveillance in public health.
Apply measurement tools to assess the impact of disease, its burden, and associated risk factors.
Discuss the importance of validity and reliability.
Evaluate the steps for investigating the occurrence of disease.
Oswego Outbreak Case Study

Read the “Oswego Outbreak Investigation,” located in the Topic Materials.

Part 1

Complete the following:

Using the line listing in the Excel “Oswego Line Listing Workbook,” calculate the attack rate ratios for each food item using the table in the Excel “Oswego Attack Rate Table.” Create a separate 2×2 table for the food item you think is responsible for the outbreak and interpret the attack rate ratio for this food item. Refer to the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource for guidance.
Using the line listing in Excel “Oswego Line Listing Workbook,” construct an epidemic curve by the time of onset of illness. What does this curve tell you regarding the average incubation period, source, and transmission?
Using the incubation range and clinical symptoms, identify potential infectious agents that could be responsible for the outbreak (refer to the Topic Material, “Compendium of Acute Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases”). Discuss your rationale.
Part 2

In a 500-750 word paper, evaluate the situation and present your findings. Including the following:

Does this case meet the definition of an “outbreak?” Why or why not?
Identify the steps required to investigate an outbreak. How did these steps help in investigating the Oswego event? Include the relevant information needed for each step to be successful.
Discuss the possible routes of transmission for the expected agent.
Based on this information, what control measures would you recommend? State whether they are primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention strategies.
General Requirements

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Topic 2 DQ 1

Disease surveillance is a necessary public health role. Passive surveillance relies on individuals and local authorities “pushing” information to national agencies who then compile, analyze, and disseminate the information. Unfortunately, significant gaps occur in reporting.

Review your textbook, and the CDC’s National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Discuss the strengths of the current surveillance systems, the gaps you identified, and why these gaps occur. Discuss the global challenges of coordinating surveillance between multiple countries and provide an example highlighting the challenges. What could other governments and agencies, such as the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, do to strengthen global disease surveillance systems?

Topic 2 DQ 2

Explain the importance of validity and reliability in diagnostic testing or research. Describe how validity relates to sensitivity and specificity in diagnostic testing. Identify a health screen specific to a diagnostic test that is currently being debated regarding its use, recommended ages, or frequency, and discuss how validity and reliability play into this debate. What other factors should you consider when you assess the recommendations for a diagnostic test or screen?

Topic 3: Causal Inference, Confounding, and Bias

Objectives:

Determine sources of bias within a study design.
Describe confounding relationships.
Evaluate the types of causal relationships associated with causation.
Assess measures of morbidity.
Measuring Morbidity: Prevalence and Incidence

Read the scenario below and complete the assignment as instructed.

Scenario

In Community X (population 20,000), an epidemiologist conducted a prevalence survey in January of 2012 and reported an HIV prevalence of 2.2%. Over the next 12 months, the department of health reported an additional 50 new HIV cases between February 2012 and January 2013. The total population stayed constant at 20,000.

Part 1

How many people had HIV in January 2012? Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer.
Calculate the incidence rate assuming no HIV-related deaths over the 12-month period. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer. Be sure to clearly indicate the numerator and denominator used in your calculation and include an appropriate label for the rate.
In a summary of 200-250 words, interpret the results and discuss the relationship between incidence and prevalence. Discuss whether or not the epidemiologist should be concerned about these new HIV infections, assuming a previous incidence rate of 0.5 per 1,000 person-years prior to this updated risk assessment.

Part 2

A rapid test used for diagnosing HIV has a sensitivity of 99.1% and a specificity of 90%. Based on the population prevalence of 2.2% in 2012, create a 2×2 table showing the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives. Calculate the positive predicative value and negative predictive value for this test. Refer to the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource for guidance.

In 200-250 words, discuss whether or not the epidemiologist should recommend this test as part of a universal HIV screening program. Provide rationale for your recommendation applying the positive and negative predictive values. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer.

General Requirements

APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Differentiate between bias and confounding. Discuss the criteria necessary to establish a factor as a confounder and provide an example applying these criteria. What is one way to adjust for a confounding relationship in the study design or the analysis?

Topic 3 DQ 2

Explain the two major types of bias. Identify a peer-reviewed epidemiology article that discusses potential issues with bias as a limitation and discuss what could have been done to minimize the bias (exclude articles that combine multiple studies such as meta-analysis and systemic review articles). What are the implications of making inferences based on data with bias? Include a link to the article in your reference.

Topic 4: Study Designs I
Objectives:
Compare and contrast randomized trials and cohort studies.
Differentiate between experimental and observational categories of study designs.
Multicausality: Confounding Assignment

These estimates include the influence of other extraneous variables, such as confounders. Confounding is often considered a type of bias, but it is a real relationship that requires an adjustment in the study design or analysis. Understanding how to identify confounding is important as most associations have multiple causal factors. Recognizing if a study adjusted for the appropriate confounding variables is important to determine the validity of the association. To assist your proficiency with the concept of confounding, and how it ultimately affects public health, this practice assignment has been provided.

Complete Problems 1 to 4 from the “Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment” by Schoenbach, located in your Topic Materials. Check your answers against the solutions presented in the “Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment Solutions” Topic Material. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Topic 4 DQ 2
Describe the characteristics and design of a cohort study. Based on a disease or health condition identified from the “2020 LHI Topics” on the Healthy People 2020 website, or an article from the GCU library, discuss a real example of a cohort study (include the link to the article in your post to the forum). Include the participants, exposures or treatment groups, timeframe, and outcomes that were measured. Why is a cohort study described as an “observational” study rather than an “experimental” study design?

Topic 5 DQ 1
Describe the common characteristics and design of a case-control study. Discuss the three important features when it comes to selecting cases and controls, and identify a situation when one of these might be violated. Discuss the limitations of using questionnaires for determining exposure status and provide examples of alternative strategies for collecting this information in a case-control study. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Topic 5 DQ 2
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies and examples of how they can be “descriptive” or “analytic” study designs. Discuss an example of a disease where survival could influence the association between a possible exposure and the disease when measured with a cross-sectional study. Do not discuss examples used in the textbook.

Topic 6: Measures of Association and Application
Objectives:

Differentiate between association and causal relationships.
Determine the relative risk and odds ratio as measures of association.
Evaluate the utility of the population attributable risk.
Evaluate the types of causal relationships and associated guidelines for establishing causality.
Calculating Odds Ratio
Data can be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative data is helpful to generate a hypothesis and gather information if little is known about an expected association. Focus groups, key informant interviews, and case studies are types of qualitative data collection methods used to identify common themes from which to build a hypothesis. Quantitative data collection and analysis is used to test a hypothesis and make comparisons to determine the direction and strength of a potential association. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is cross-sectional panel survey used to collect quantitative data on adult behaviors and risk factors. It is one of the largest U.S. health data collection efforts. The data can be used to analyze associations on a state or country level. Follow the steps to obtain a 2×2 contingency table (also known as a “cross tabulation”) crossing binge drinking with depression PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Retrieve the “BRFSS Web-Enabled Analysis Tool” resource provided in the Topic Materials.
Select “Cross Tabulation.”
Select “2015” for the year.
Select “Arizona” for the state.
Select “Alcohol Consumption: Binge drinkers (males having five or more drinks on one occasion, females having four or more drinks on one occasion)” for Step 2 Select Row.
Select “Chronic Health Conditions: Ever diagnosed with a depressive disorder, including depression, major depression, dysthymia, or minor depression” for Step 3 Select Column.
Skip Steps 4 and 5.
Select “Sample Size” for Step 6 Select Statistics and run the report for the cross tabulation.
Part 1

Using the data from the cross tabulation results, calculate the odds ratio for depression among those exposed to binge drinking. Interpret the odds ratio and discuss if the odds ratio is a good estimate of the relative risk in this situation. Why or why not? Show your 2×2 table and all calculations. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Part 2

Use the Topic Material, “BRFSS Web-Enabled Analysis Tool,” located on the CDC website, and run a report for two variables of interest to you. Create a 2×2 table and calculate the odds ratio for this association. Interpret the odds ratio and discuss the public health importance of the association. Show your 2×2 table. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer.

Refer to the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource for guidance in creating 2×2 contingency tables.

General Requirements

APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Topic 6 DQ 1
Differentiate between association and causation using the causal guidelines. Discuss which of the guidelines you think is the most difficult to establish. Discuss the four types of causal relationships and use an example not listed in the textbook to describe each relationship. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Topic 6 DQ 2
Explain the difference between relative risk, attributable risk, and population attributable risk. Provide an example (not from the textbook) of how each type of risk is used in epidemiology. How would you propose using population attributable risk to advocate for a health policy or intervention relative to your health interest?

Topic 7: Applying Epidemiology to Policy
Objectives:
Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.
Discuss the means by which social inequities, and racism undermine health and create challenges to achieving health equity at organizational, community and societal levels.
Benchmark – Epidemiologic Profile Assignment
An epidemiologic profile is a summary of a significant public health issue, or issues, in your community, county, state, or country. An epidemiological profile helps to coordinate activities and policies from various agencies and organizations to improve health.

Review the available data, reports, and documents for your locale. Assess how the methods of epidemiology (study designs, data collection, measures of association, etc.) are used to determine who needs what services, where the services are needed, and how those services should be delivered. Define your community as your city, metropolitan area, or county and write a 2,000-2,250 word epidemiological profile (word limit excludes references and title page).The profile can be a general profile that provides a landscape picture of several significant chronic and infectious diseases in your defined community, or it can be a specific profile that targets one health issue, such as diabetes, asthma, STDs, flu, heart disease, obesity, alcohol abuse, or other drug use. Include the following:

Executive Summary

Describe the purpose of the epidemiologic profile and the health issue(s) it addresses. Discuss its importance to the community and how it will be utilized. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.
Summarize the key findings from your review of available data, reports, and documents for the community.
Introduction

Describe the defined community and population using demographic and socio-economic information and data.
Briefly describe the history and cultural background of the community.
Explain any unique contextual information that pertains to the public health of the defined community.
Describe any key public health projects, grants, or existing epidemiology-related working groups or committees in the community/county.
Description of Available Data

Identify at least two different data sources relevant to your profile. Discuss data from these sources and their relation to the issue or community.

Discuss the methods used in the data collection process (data source and organization providing the data; how often the data are collected; data limitations including response rates, missing data, selection of participants, etc.). Potential data sources and databases might include the following depending on what is available for your community or county:

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data
Youth risk behavioral survey
Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program data
CDC Wonder (multiple data sources)
County health rankings data (multiple data sources)
Alcohol-related disease impact data
Demographic health survey data (international) PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology
Global school-based student health survey (international)
Local evaluation reports from the department/ministry of health or other nonprofit organizations
Interpretation of Results Regarding Key Health Issue

Size and magnitude of the measures
Trends and comparisons
Economic costs
Discussion of Problems and Strategies

Discuss disparities, limitations, and gaps in the information available regarding the health issue(s).
Describe potential public health strategies to address these gaps.
Use graphs and tables where appropriate.
Conclusion

You are required to cite to at least five sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

General Requirements

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competency:

MPH

2.1 Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

MSN Public Health Nursing

6.2 Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice.

Topic 7 DQ 1
Epidemiological methods are used in a variety of public health areas (including infectious disease, chronic disease, and social health) and settings (including the community, schools, and the workplace). Epidemiological methods are used to assess, describe, analyze, and make comparisons of populations to inform evidence-based practices, policies, and interventions. Propose a study based on the methods you have learned thus far designed to investigate an association within one of the public health areas listed (infectious disease, chronic disease, or social health) and the methods you would apply. Discuss and define the risk factor or exposure that is being assessed, the method of comparison that is used, and the setting or situation (community, school, workplace, etc.) your study would look to address. Consider the concepts of causal inference, measures of association, and study design. PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Topic 7 DQ 2
Race is often used as a descriptor of disease burden and helps us to determine where health disparities exist in order to address them, which is important. It is helpful to differentiate between race as a descriptor and race as a risk factor. Think about institutional racism and its influence on health. Consider the factors related to race and ethnicity that might be influencing disease status more than the genetics of race when answering this discussion question.

Consider the following statement: “Race is not a risk factor and should not be used in public health data collection.” Discuss the ethical and public health implications of this statement. When might collecting data on race perpetuate institutional racism leading to health disparities and when is it necessary to improve public health? Provide support and examples for your answer. Consider ethical issues related to respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as described in “The Belmont Report.”

Topic 8: Environment and Genetics
Objectives:

Discuss how genetic and environmental factors interact in causing disease.
Explain the biological and genetic factors that affects a population’s health.
Topic 8 DQ 1

One method to investigate gene-environment interactions is to study monozygotic twins. Identify an example of a twin study not listed in the textbook used to examine the gene-environment interaction of a specific disease or condition. Briefly summarize the gene-environment interaction investigated, the methods, and the results. What are other possible methods for studying gene-environment interactions as they relate to improving population health?

Topic 8 DQ 2

Using the CDC Wonder website, set the query criteria for pancreatic cancer for the United States as illustrated below. Compare the rates by race for Wisconsin and Colorado. Discuss possible biological, genetic, and environmental reasons for differences. What are potential social determinants that contribute to the disparity presented between the two states? PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology.

Use this query upon entering the CDC Wonder website:

Select “Cancer Statistics” under the Wonder Systems tab

Select “Cancer Incidence 1999 – 2013” and click “Data Request”

Organize table layout:

Group results by 1. States and 2. Race (leave the rest of the group options as “None”)
Measures – click “Count” (default) and “Age Adjusted Rates”
Select location – select “States” and “The United States”

Select year and demographics

Year – 2014
Sex – All genders
Age groups – All ages
Ethnicity – All ethnicities
Race – All races
Select cancers of interest – select “Pancreas”

Other options – keep default settings PUB 540 Principles of epidemiology