Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
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Describe and discuss the role of the US Dept of Health and Human services, etc. Explain the different contribution of governmental and nongovernmental structures in public health systems in different countries Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
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This paper explores a nurses role in health care, policies implemented, and the legislative process in which they operate. Nurses are not only advocates for themselves; they are also an advocate for their patients. Therefore, it is important for nurses to be active in lobbying for much needed policies that concern their healthcare and wellbeing. It sheds some light on various organizations set into place in which these nurses can come together and have a voice in which to enable the changes desired and needed for individual voices that may not have been heard otherwise. It explores a few specific healthcare policies that have had major influences on healthcare management as well as the nurses themselves. In addition, it outlines some of the legislative processes, budgetary and bill policies, as well as some of the programs not otherwise known to have been started through nurses rallying together to allow citizens better healthcare regardless of race, socio-economic status, or age. Nurses truly are the apex of healthcare policy and legislature. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Legislature, by definition, is a powerful and intimidating body of officials that seem to do works above that of your everyday individual out in the workforce living pay check to paycheck. However, when closely examined, legislature starts with that very individual. It is said that it takes an entire village to raise a child; as is the case of health care policies and legislature. Health care is universal to everyone in the fact that everyone needs healthcare and is therefore, affected by its policies. Everyone has the power to make changes that can benefit them as an individual. These individuals bind with other like-minded individuals and form a united voice in which a platform is set for desired changes to be heard. Nurses are at the very apex of this voice as they are on the front-lines with these individuals giving the day to day care and have first-hand knowledge to help in health care policies and legislature. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Politics plays a key role in determining what health care policies are lobbied, passed and implemented. The American Nurses organization is extremely involved in the political side of healthcare by writing, lobbying and even visiting their representatives to advocate for patients as well as nurses issues needing to be addressed. A few topics being brought before the State Capitol by the Mississippi Nurses Association for the 2013 Congressional meeting are tax breaks for doctors with a practice in rural areas, making each state’s licensing board responsible for writing their own regulations for licensure, additional funding for nurses working in the public health system, and eliminating an insurance company’s ability to dictate what medications their patients could take based on cost (Dickson, 2012). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Political Action Committees (PACs or Special Interest Groups SICs) are established either by registering independently or becoming a PAC that arises out of an organization already established; such as the American Nurses Association. These committees begin a large percentage of the legislative issues being lobbied for today. PACs raise money to be spent on television campaigns, famous people to speak on their behalf, have literature printed, funds to hold events, and any other resource needed to help advocate on the special interest of the Committee. The American Nurses Association’s PAC raises money to support those federal candidates that hold the same beliefs and agenda as the American Nurses Association. The ANA/PAC is bipartisan and has a Board of Trustees to ensure there is no misappropriation of funds on their behalf (American Nurses Association, 2012). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Specific bills are required by Congress for the government to get the approval to spend money. These bills are known as Appropriation bills. Appropriation bills represent the spending of cabinet departments and all must be congressionally sanctioned and signed by the President of the United States and must be presented and approved for each fiscal year. Such bills are named for their specific need such as the Taxpayer Relief Act or the Homeland Security Act. There are some amendments added, known as “pet” programs, to get bills enacted and gain votes from certain members of Congress before they adjourn. These pet programs are added just before the close of the Congressional meeting because members know the President does not have line item veto authority and must either sign or veto the bill, and many times the public is not aware of certain disbursements until after they have been approved. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Health programs are divided into two categories based on how the budgets are controlled; Discretionary and Entitlements. While Discretionary programs are annually appropriated, they are considered controllable. Discretionary programs are primarily research services for communicable diseases, training and family planning. Entitlement programs are those that are not easily controlled due to the appropriation demographic being based on age, disabilities, prepayment, or socio-economic status. Those programs are known as Social Security, veteran’s pay, Medicare, Medicaid, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs. The only way to control appropriations is to change the eligibility requirements of the receiving parties. The United States Department of Health and Human Services has been implemented to oversee this massive operation and is established from the Secretary of Health’s office. This department is comprised of agencies representing all levels of the state and government; from the Surgeon General, the Food and Drug Administration, to the local interviewing office. (Creasia & Friberg 2011) Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
There are currently three problems in the nursing world. There are not enough nursing educators that are doctoral-prepared to meet the need, there needs to be more nurses with baccalaureate level or advanced practice nurses with masters-level preparation, and there is also an issue with competency-based education. It is suspected that there is a shortage of nursing educators that are doctoral-prepared due to a large number of nurses that retired in the early 2000’s. There have been a lot of new doctoral programs that have opened in the past few years however, there is still a shortage of educators. Health related businesses have come to encourage those seeking a nurse’s education to now obtain a baccalaureate or master’s in order to have a more holistic approach to nursing. Many candidates, however, opt for obtaining an associate’s degree instead due to the program requiring less time, money, and required courses. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
“Health policies, or decisions regarding the health care system, are developed and implemented through several avenues. Congressional and state legislation; federal, state, and local rules and regulations for agencies; and appropriation decisions are methods to develop health policy.” (Creasia & Friberg 2011) This is the definition of health policies and who makes them. Health policies are usually only made through legislation but there are many parties who contribute to them. Public opinion, the economy, societal demographics, professional expertise, technology, and overall knowledge about health all contribute to making health policies. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
There have been many different health policies, some in which have been very influential. The three most important policies before 1990 were Medicare, Medicaid, and the Social Security Act of 1935. The Social Security Act of 1935 established the Social Security Administration and the pension income. Medicare provides health coverage for the elderly and Medicaid provides care for the poor and needy citizens in America. These policies were created to ensure that everyone in America was ensured health coverage even if they couldn’t get it for themselves. A policy that was very influential for nurses and nursing school was the Nurse Training Act of 1964 and it was an initial federal act for professional nurse training. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
In 1990, a very important policy was passed concerning hospitals. “With the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance.” (“About OSHA”) OSHA was created to make rules for hospitals to follow that would help prevent the transmission of infections and diseases. With OSHA hospitals have to follow certain procedures for handling blood, bodily fluids, and biohazard wastes. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
In the 1990’s there were also a few really important acts. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Welfare Reform Act in 1996, and The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibited discrimination towards citizens with mental or physical disabilities and the Welfare Reform Act prohibited people from staying on Welfare longer than five years and it requires that they must have a job within two years. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act’s purpose is so that citizens will have insurance when they are transferring in between jobs. It also contains rules for hospitals and institutions protecting patient’s health data. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
From 2001 to the present, there has also been a lot of health policies passed. Three of the most common were The Nurse Reinvestment Act, Medicare Modernization Act, and the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. The Nurse Reinvestment Act gives funding for recruitment, retention, and education of nurses. The Medicare Modernization Act created Part D and Part C drug benefits. The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act reauthorized CHIP’s until 2013. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The State Nurse Practice Acts defines the rules and regulations for nursing education and licensure. They require that all nurses graduate from a state board approved college and that students pass the NCLEX after graduating. The NCLEX is the National Council Licensure Examination and it is a test to ensure that nursing students learned everything they needed to learn in school before they are licensed to care for patients.
In the past few years nurses have really became active in health policy and politics. Nurses have even started serving as legislatures to help pass health policies! “As nurses become more informed, passionate, and committed about their leadership role in the policy arena, legislation at the state and federal levels will require input from nurses to advocate for patients, for the public, and for themselves. (Creasia & Friberg 2011) Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
President Obama signed in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care of 2010 on March 23, 2010. “The passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the historic health reform legislation signed into law in 2010, promotes access to care and strengthens consumer protections. But by supporting the integration of clinical medicine with population-based prevention, the ACA also builds on and strengthens the foundation for prevention and wellness established by Healthy People, the nation’s health promotion and disease prevention aspirations for a healthier nation.” (Fielding, Teutsch, & Koh 2012) The main point of “Obamacare” is to reduce the number of uninsured Americans and to reduce the overall cost of health care. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Nurses play a vital role in health policy and planning. Nurses are advocates for both themselves and their patients. It is imperative that nurses play a role in health policy and planning to ensure quality health care and an effective practice environment.
Public policy is the actions taken by the government and the goals that influence those actions. Public policies affect individuals in many ways, ranging from health, economic, environmental, and educational factors (Stewart, Hedge, & Lister, 2007). Health care is seen as an essential public policy. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Health care is evaluated or assessed on the aspects of publicly provided health care to the citizens of a given country. The welfare herein comprises of both curative and preventive measures, both of which are tailored towards achieving the set policies that concern the general public.
This is done by analyzing the combination of local level data and information from the public health and their welfare; individual levels of data and information are also used in the analysis. The individual data in this case is based on the how satisfactory life is, the main interest being on the health care policy. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
On the broader spectrum, huge expenditures on health care systems are directly related to the life’s satisfaction derived by individuals and the general public, the generational effects being the baseline of the benefits of the public policy adopted for the variant groups and the diverse needs that need to be met in the health care sector.
The combination of the fundamental aspect of health policy can be used to ascertain the theoretical hypotheses generated from welfare effects on public health provision and how these effects differ across the different groups of population. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
It is important to note that health care policy evaluation is dependent on the individuals’ political orientation, which consequently yields differences in the opinion of assessment of the problems in the public health care system policies. This research paper seeks “to address the operation ability of the health care welfare policy.
It further considers the problems associated with it as a public policy, with the evolution and evaluation of the policy being of the main focus. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
These interests are assessed on the basis of how the health policy is structured to deal with emerging issues in the sector, alongside the policies and measures put in place to ensure its ability to perform, and approaches and recommendations that oversee its long term sustainability with research incorporated”. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Health Care Public Policy Problem: The Scope and Nature
The issue of health care affects everyone, ranging from families worrying about their children to government officials being worried about the increasing cost of health care. Workers, doctors, and hospitals are also concerned with the responsibility of delivering proper health care.
The value of Health care services determines the welfare state associated with them. Health care policy is considered a public policy since it is by greater extent provided by the government through the relevant agencies due to the externalities associated with it, if it is provided through the normal market model. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
It is therefore non-rival and non-excludable from any individual in the population. Most of these services are mostly offered for free or at highly subsidized prices by the government (Williams & Torrens, 2007).
The welfare associated with the provision of medical care and services constitute public policy problem in this concept. An attempt to value public goods is more or less complex, and consequently requires special treatment of variables considered. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The welfare measure of any health system is followed by preference methodology from the participants in that particular package. Assessing the welfare herein is based on the individuals’ life satisfaction and health status derived from health care.
It is important to note that health is a derived demand rather than a direct demand. Health is not directly purchased, but it is rather achieved through consumption of health care services (Frey and Stutzer, 2005).
The use of life satisfaction to analyze how well a given health policy is also useful in the assessment of the contribution of private sector in the health system, thereby presenting the applicability of the private goods in the health system. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
In both public and private health concerns, the bottom line is that the happiness or satisfaction derived from the activities of both parties constitutes the objective that the public policies for health care purport to play.
For the challenges faced therein, counter measures are formulated and implemented based on the already available data on public health care services and the expected achievements for the sector, right from the goals and mission of such policies.
The major problem in the assessment of the welfare of health care services and the general public policies developed for such purposes is that the value to assign with the general feeling of the individuals is difficult to ascertain. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
It has been evident in other studies that the Haw-Thorne effect makes it difficult for individuals to respond to stimulus, especially when they realize the data is meant to achieve some results for the health sector (Bjornskoy, Dreher, and Fisher, 2007). Therefore, they determine how policies are to be structures, either positively or negatively.
Public Policy Evolution
Health care policy formulation and implementation has been characterized by government’s interests since mid-1970s. These concerns were tailored by the objective of the governments to improve the welfare of the larger population in a country. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Health care systems have been viewed as primary legal and objective tools that effectively communicate needs and achievements of both the government and the population for whom these policies are meant to serve. On the same note, health care professionals have played an important role in the determination of end-of-life interests for the population since that time (Reeve & Peerbhoy, 2007).
The interaction of all parties involved in the process spell out the goals, objectives and proper instructions to be followed in the development of a health care system. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Further, a proxy decision maker is identified by the rules and regulations that govern the system, especially in times of incapacity, so as to ensure the coherence in the general interest of pursuing these policies. Over the years, improvement and reforms have been considered the fundamentals of health care policy.
End-of-life legal landscape evolvement and the advance directives laws have provided continuity in the evolution of policies that focus on health care systems and their welfare to the society. Paradigm shifts have also tailored change for the betterment of health sector, alongside statutory backup that traces its roots back in history and further relates that to the present. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Research and development in the health care and health system welfare has led to the emergence of strategies that are tailored towards improving the usefulness and evaluation of usability in the health sector.
The effectiveness and efficiency of the evaluations are dependent on the specific frameworks adopted by the government on the implementation of the health care services and the control over the personnel charged with the responsibility of overseeing the success of the system (Reeve & Peerbhoy, 2007). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Furthermore, evaluation is mainly based on the experimental procedures in the sector, where each stage of the experiment provides an evaluation model of the associated results at that particular stage. Pilot studies can be done before the actual study in to determine the variables that better fit the experimentation and further evaluation of the policies.
Actors in evaluation
Cost s– the cost of evaluating a policy should not exceed the general benefit associated with it to the public and its long term welfare should be based on relatively to the next several generations. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
Roles – the evaluation procedure should be tailored towards ascertaining if the policy will actually meet its purpose and how it is sustainable.
Variable relations – public policy evaluation should incorporate all the aspects of the health care system that it purports to serve, determining the relevant relationship among the variables, and consequently outlining how the variables affect each other under different factor treatments that are likely to occur in the health sector. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The Intergovernmental Structure and Political Concerns
Health policy is essentially a member states competence. However, the European Union has presently raised some alarm and some uncertainties concerning the way activities are being carried out in both the pharmaceutical industries and public health interests.
An indispensable aspect in the health care policy in the European Union is the balance between the public health and the health care on one hand and industrial policy on the other hand. The public policy approach tries to take great interest on the problems, the actors involved, the resources used, and also on the patterns on interaction in EU’s health policy (Reeve & Peerbhoy, 2007). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The government is implicated to ascertain on the way the decisions are made and implemented, and the impacts the policies within the health care welfare will affect the community. In enhancing better health care to the entire community, it is the role of the government to analyze and select the actors involved in the health sector.
In addition, the government should oversee how different responsibilities and roles have been assigned to different interest groups and whether the requirements are met. It is also in this aspect that the role of national governments and EU institutions is determined and how well they interact within the laid down health care policies (Weible, 2007). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The Approaches to Policy Setting
Policies formulated and implemented within health care takes place as a result of the interactive process that happens between numerous key players or actors guided by their own interests and strategies.
Basing on the case of EU and its related health care issues, it is import to note that this is one of the sectors that is composed of different interests in opposition: public health and health care and the industrial policy.
To better understand the EU policy making process and the intergovernmental relations that exist within the health care policy, the interested groups or members have to apply for an advocacy coalition framework (ACF). As specified, this is only within the European Union context. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
ACF gives a theoretical understanding of the interaction that subsists between the policy making process and intergovernmental relations within the European Union health care sector. In enhancing an effective and efficient health care, there is a need to have policy subsystem that should be dynamic and has multiple actors who structure their relationship into the advocacy coalition.
The actors involved are also moved by the policy beliefs and to an extent they may try to influence the policies by use of multiple resources and various venues. According to the views provided by ACF, healthy care policies may be perceived as a process that involves competition between a coalition of actors who advocate beliefs about the policy problems and solutions (Gask et al, 2005).
The competition that takes place is essential as it will help in maintaining the social security of the communities within the region that receives its services. Such competition must be placed within policy subsystems to remain effective in rendering services to the communities. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
In essence, the policy subsystem may be defined as a set of actors who are actively concerned with implementing an issue and therefore seek to influence the public policy that is directly related to it. However, the pharmaceutical subsystem within the health care system may be polarized between a pro-industry advocacy coalition and an anti-industry advocacy coalition.
The division between these two coalitions is mainly due to their policy preferences: one of the coalitions is mainly aimed at increasing and protecting the pharmaceutical interests while the other coalition is aimed at overseeing that public health provided superimposes the industrial interests.
However, in the process of ensuring that the two coalitions work in conjunction with one another, all in the common goal of providing effective health care services, conflicts may arise. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The conflicts may be driven by normative beliefs and this may make even the implementation of the policies to be difficult. Such a problem may not persist for long, considering that the policies made in such a scenario are EU related and they are therefore established on the bases of consensus. Another advantage is that the political process involved in their formation and implementation is not usually a zero-sum game.
In such a case negotiations are required in the policies made. The basis of making negotiations will depend on the features of the political system and also on particular context factors. For instance, the higher the extent of consensus used in making the policies, the higher the rate of compromise created for incentives for broker’s action across the coalition (Reeve & Peerbhoy, 2005). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
In the policy making process, a combination of both the intergovernmental negotiations and supranational centralization is necessary. The commission involved in making policies has a duty to draw up the proposal required, and then a decision on the efficiency of the proposal is passed on by the council members.
The commission is also responsible for the conflicts that may arise out of the decisions that they may have initiated which violate the rights of the council members. In making sure that the rights of the council members are not violated, the commission is compelled to involve the consensus in coming up with quality decisions regarding the policies.
If it is discovered that the policy proposals were reached upon without the involvement of the consensus, they can be blocked by intergovernmental haggling (Scharpf, 2000). Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
The Suggested Policy Direction that is supported by Research
According to this research, it would be essential if the members involved in the health care could be in a position to entirely change the whole system used in rendering services to the patients.
It would also be the responsibility of the commission to strategically ensure that all resources and venues essential for the quality decisions are available to avoid the deadlock. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
For quality and effective policies, the commission should also suggest and encourages exchange of information and opinions among the stakeholders, supportive networks, from the public among others (Reeve & Peerbhoy, 2005).
Such changes would be very imperative in enhancing better health care for the interest of the whole public. Therefore, an adequate health care system should have an objective of enabling citizens to access quality health care in a cost effective way. Proper health care can be achieved when there are enough finances to support the costly diagnostic tests and processes, and lengthy stays for inpatients. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
It is evident from the above discussion and concepts that investment in health is expensive. In this regard, increasing expenditures are directly proportional to the life satisfaction of the general public. However, differences across the population groups are evident, with the willingness to pay or invest in health varying across the groups.
These differences occur due to the fact that the willingness to pay for publicly provided private services like health is mainly non-monotonic in the level of income of the population. In essence this research paper has addressed “the operation ability of the health care policy. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay
It further considered the problems associated with it as a public policy, with the evolution and evaluation of the policy being of fundamental interest.
These interests were assessed on the basis of how the health policy is structured to deal with emerging issues in the sector, alongside the policies and measures put in place to ensure its functionality, and approaches and recommendations that oversee its long term sustainability with research incorporated”. In this regard, it is evident that devotion of monetary resources to public service and provision of health care is positively related to the well being of the population. Health Systems Health Policy and Politics Essay