Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to ‘Communicable Disease Chain,’; ‘Chain of Infection,’ and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease ‘;CHICKENPOX’
Epidemiology Paper Requirements:
Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
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A communicable disease spreads from one person or animal to another. The diseases are caused by pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Some of the ways through which the pathogen can be transmitted include inhaling contaminated droplets from an infected person, direct contact with a person carrying the pathogen, consuming contaminated water or foods, and contact with contaminated fluids such as mucus, blood, or saliva. A pathogen starts replicating once it has entered a person’s body which causes a person to experience symptoms. The symptoms that a person exhibits can be due to the body’s immune response or due to the damaging of the body cells by the pathogens. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, chickenpox, HIV/AIDS, and mumps. This paper discusses the epidemiology of chickenpox. The essay further discusses the epidemiologic triangle for chickenpox, and the role of the community health nurse.
Chickenpox is a communicable disease that is caused by a virus that is called varicella-zoster virus. The disease is highly contagious, especially for people who are not vaccinated against it. If a person is diagnosed with chickenpox, approximately 90% of the people close to the person and are not immune to the disease or vaccinated against the disease tend to get infected. The varicella-zoster virus can also cause shingles. When the virus reactivates itself in a person’s body after suffering from chickenpox, a person tends to get shingles. People with shingles can spread the virus to people who have never had chickenpox or received the chickenpox vaccine.
The disease can be transmitted when an infected person sneezes or coughs and another person inhales the infected air droplets. It can also be transmitted through direct contact with the rash. A person with chickenpox is deemed to be contagious between 1 to 2 days before the onset of the rash up to when all the chickenpox lesions have scabbed. People who have been vaccinated against chickenpox can get lesions that do not crust. Such people are considered contagious until no new lesions have appeared for 24 hours. Although it is not common, it is possible to get chickenpox more than once.
The symptoms of chickenpox can be seen easily. The symptoms of chickenpox include headache, feeling tired, fever, bumps filled with a liquid that looks like milky water, a skin rash that is itchy and looks like many small blisters, tiredness, and a general feeling of being unwell, scabs after the blisters break and skin that looks blotchy. The chickenpox rash goes through three phases once it appears. The first phase is raised pink or red bumps that normally break out over several days. The second phase tends to have small fluid-filled blisters that normally form in about one day and later break and leak. The third phase is crusts and scabs that cover the broken blisters and take more days to heal. A person can have all three stages of the rash at the same time.
Some of the complications of chickenpox include pneumonia, dehydration, toxic shock syndrome, inflammation of the brain, Reyes syndrome in teenagers and children who take aspirin, and bacterial infections of the joints, soft tissues, skin, or bloodstream.
For healthy children who have been diagnosed with chickenpox, there is usually no need for medical treatment. Antihistamine can be prescribed to help relieve itching. Sometimes doctors can prescribe medications to shorten the length of the infection as well as reduce the risk of complications. An antiviral drug can be prescribed if a child is at a high risk of complications. The drug can help reduce the severity of chickenpox when given 24 hours after the appearance of the first rash. Examples of antiviral drugs that can be prescribed include acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir.
Demographic of Interest
The condition occurs worldwide; in temperate regions, it commonly affects children below ten years, while it affects both children and adults in the tropical regions (Duncan, 2021). Before the vaccine introduction, approximately 4million cases were recorded, and 10 000 patients were hospitalized annually. The fatality rate was 1 per 100 000 for children between 1 and 14 years; for adults, the rate was about 21 per 100 000. Most deaths occur among patients who are immunocompromised. Since the introduction of the vaccines, death and hospitalization rates have decreased by 94% and 93%, respectively. The incidence rate among infants reduced by 90% from 1995 to 2008. The incidence rate among HIV-infected children has also reduced after the introduction of the vaccine.
States are required to report cases of chicken to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System and the CDC. The reported cases are required to meet the standard definition. Care providers are required to provide a report on chickenpox cases within five days after the diagnosis. Cases are defined as an illness characterized by acute maculopapular rash, which cannot be attributed to other causes, and among the vaccinated, the illness should develop 42 days post-vaccination (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022).
Social Determinants of Health
Social determinants of health refer to the economic and social environment/conditions that affect the health of society or individuals. They are the conditions where people are born, work, live, and age. They are grouped into five major domains, including economic stability, which encompasses income and employment rates in a community. Access to education; involves the level of formal education that an individual attains. Access to quality healthcare services as a social determinant of health includes the availability of healthcare facilities in the community and afford the care services. Social and community context defines the relationship between individuals, families, friends, and other society members. The neighborhood and built environment factors include the conditions of the general surrounding, for example, the level of pollution or cleanliness of the general environment and other social amenities (Healthy People 2030, 2022).
The condition can be affected by the social determinant of health, such as access to quality healthcare services. Access to healthcare services can determine the prevalence of the condition. Communities with unlimited access to healthcare services are likely to have fewer cases of chickenpox infections, while communities with no access to healthcare services are likely to have higher incidences. Chickenpox can be prevented by accessing vaccines early enough before infections occur; therefore, in societies where members can access the healthcare services, they will be able to easily receive the vaccines preventing the infection compared to communities with little to no access to healthcare services. Access to medical care also prevents the development of complications associated with chickenpox, such as sepsis, encephalitis, and Reye’s syndrome (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022).
The level of education affects the progress of the disease by influencing the course of action that people take once infected, such as seeking medical care. Individuals with a higher level of education are likely to identify the disease as an infection that requires medical attention and therefore more likely to seek healthcare services, compared to individuals with lower education levels who are likely to dismiss the infection as a normal occurrence and are likely to seek medical interventions when complications are involved. Although there is no cure for chickenpox, seeking medical care is important in ensuring that complications do not arise due to poor management. The level of education also influences the ability to provide self-care practices since the patients are rarely admitted to hospitals, which can influence the patient’s spread and recovery (Healthy People 2030, 2022).