Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic Renal Failure 150 150 Peter

Chronic Renal Failure

1) Explain what happens physiologically with chronic renal failure and the GFR. Support with evidence. Include important labs that are monitored in the process.
2) Explain the role of Angiotensin II and proteinuria as they relate to advancing renal disease.
3) List at least three other body systems that are impacted by chronic kidney disease and why.

Sample Paper

Nsg5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

During chronic renal failure, a lot of physiological processes occur. One of the main changes that are witnessed during a chronic renal failure is the loss of about half of the total nephrons. The loss of nephron results in a quick progression of chronic renal failure regardless of etiology. The reduction in the total number of nephrons results in an increase in glomerular permeability, which causes an increased infiltration of protons which are eventually lost in urine (Chen et al., 2019). The loss in the total number of nephrons also causes cytokine release and an increase in growth factors. These changes, therefore, result in an increase in adaptive hyperfiltration in the kidneys, which can contribute to an increase in Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (Perez-Gomez et al., 2019). The increase of adaptive hyperfiltration can also contribute to increasing intraglomerular capillary pressure. The important labs that are monitored during chronic renal failure include glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a test that examines the amount of blood that passes through the glomeruli each minute to allow the filtration of waste from the blood(Perez-Gomez et al., 2019).

Angiotensin II can contribute to pressure-induced renal injury because of the ability of the enzyme to induce systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Angiotensin II can also result in tubular injury, which results from Angiotensin II-induced proteinuria (Pettitt et al., 2020). Angiotensin II contributes to advancing renal disease by contributing to Angiotensin II-induced proteinuria and tubular injury.

Chronic kidney disease impacts other body systems, including the lungs heart, in terms of body tissue. This is because chronic kidney disease results in a lot of fluid buildup around the heart, lungs, and body tissue which causes pressure on the heart and can cause a rise in blood pressure. Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of strokes and heart attacks (Pettitt et al., 2020).



Chen, T. K., Knicely, D. H., & Grams, M. E. (2019). Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis and Management. JAMA322(13), 1294.

Perez-Gomez, M. V., Bartsch, L. A., Castillo-Rodriguez, E., Fernandez-Prado, R., Fernandez-Fernandez, B., Martin-Cleary, C., Gracia-Iguacel, C., & Ortiz, A. (2019). Clarifying the concept of chronic kidney disease for non-nephrologists. Clinical Kidney Journal12(2), 258–261.

Pettitt, R., Brumbaugh, A., Gartman, M., & Jackson, A. (2020). Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation. Osteopathic Family Physician, 12–19.