Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children

Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children

Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children 150 150 Peter

RESEARCH QUESTION: Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children

Add the following to your Part 2 Assignment paper:
Identify your research question(s) or hypotheses.
RESEARCH QUESTION: Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children

Explain how your research questions/hypotheses align, or fit, with your theory, including how concepts from the theory are used in your research question(s). Provide definitions of your concepts and justification for how the definitions are congruent with your chosen theory.

MUST INCLUDE A MINIMUM OF TWO OF THE RESOURCES Two resources are attached (transcripts of media)
Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2021). Burns & Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.
• Chapter 6, ‘Objectives, Questions, Hypotheses, and Study Variables’ (pp. 129–151)
Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2019). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (6th ed.). Pearson.
• Chapter 12, ‘Theory Analysis’ (pp. 208–228)
(Review from Week 5)
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
• Chapter 5, ‘Theory Analysis and Evaluation’ (pp. 94–113)

Reference for media attachment labeled: Media Transcript Week 6
Walden University, LLC. (2014). Progression and the implications of the theoretical foundation for research [Video]. Walden University Blackboard.

Reference for media: Week 6 Transcript
Walden University, LLC. (2014). Research questions and hypotheses [Video]. Walden University Blackboard.

Sample Paper

RESEARCH QUESTION: Childhood obesity in elementary-aged children

Research Questions

  1. Does the amount of physical education provided by a school have an impact on the BMI of a child?
  2. What are the modifying effects of the linkage between BMI and the extent of physical education?

The research questions align well with the problem and purpose statements. In essence, these research questions direct the inquiry of the study. According to Walden University (2014), a research question involves simply the researcher questioning the world. These research questions pose focused, concise and debatable questions that will offer a clear path for research (Gray & Grove, 2021). Even though several studies in the past have assessed the bearing that physical education has on BMI and behaviors related to obesity in elementary-aged children, there are limited studies that have specifically addressed the impact of the amount of physical activity provided by a school has on a child.

Physical education studies have settled on the adoption of the principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) to evaluate an individual’s capability to take part in beneficial physical activity behavior and expound how other variables including self-efficacy and self-regulation are necessary for incorporating effective physical education into lifestyles (Dolan, 2017). Bandura (2005) explains that physical education interventions are more successful if they improve environmental factors, encourage self-efficacy, strengthen an individual’s knowledge concerning a topic, are appropriately tailored for demographic groups, and develop the use of self-regulatory behaviors.

SCT is concerned with the progression of physical activity behaviors through observation, repetition, and modeling for negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement. According to Bandura (2005), human beings shape and improve their behavior by involving themselves in a social context. To back this claim, he developed two methodologies namely; vicarious reinforcement and observation learning. Human beings particularly young people learn novel behavior through modeling the behaviors of other people in the form of observational learning processes while elementary-aged children study new behaviors and reinforce their behavior by looking at how the behavior impacts others and emulate it using vicarious reinforcement processes.

In the case of observational learning processes, elementary-aged children should have models like teachers, siblings, parents, and peers rather than reinforcement. Models are crucial as they enable children to process using their cognitive abilities, encrypt and assimilate behaviors that are displayed. A model might purposely or non-purposively display particular behaviors to young people and they undergo through modeling developments from several models. Aside from this, vicarious reinforcement processes require both reinforcements and models and it is many times utilized to enlighten or run by again other individuals about the merits and demerits of taking part in certain things.

The social cognitive theory was selected in this research as it is well recognized for developing physical education initiatives for young people, especially adolescents. It has been particularly used for the prevention of childhood obesity. According to the theory, human behavior results from the dynamic interactions between personal, environmental, and behavioral factors. The feelings and thoughts of an individual make up the main elements of personal factors. Environmental or external factors include social and physical environments. Lastly, behavioral factors entail knowledge and skills that are related to health and competencies in taking and regulating action.

Indeed, SCT offers a comprehensive model for making sense of the determining factors of elementary-aged children’s behaviors and it defines potential mediators and processes for change in behavior (Ennis, 2017). A crucial concept of this theory is ‘self-efficacy’, and it is treated as an important motivator of action, a mediator as well as an essential prerequisite for behavioral change in an individual. It refers to the confidence of the individual in their ability to act in a specific manner or to overcome obstacles to acting in a particular behavior. Another crucial construct in motivating a person is ‘outcome expectation’ which refers to the perceived benefits of taking part in certain behavior. It entails social, physical, and self-evaluative outcomes (Smith, Williams, O’Donnell, & McKechnie, 2019). The value that individuals put on a particular outcome is referred to as outcome expectations. Satisfactory outcome expectations and self-efficacy gradually result in ‘goal intentions’. However, on their own, intention and motivation are not enough to initiate healthy behavior. Elementary-aged children should be encouraged to set action objectives and use their self-regulation skills to take control of their behaviors and their surroundings so as to accomplish their action objectives. Undeniably, the perception of fulfillment and satisfaction acquired by accomplishing objectives is essential for initiating and maintaining a healthy behavior (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Social support for school-going children from teachers, family, and friends also plays a crucial role in taking health actions (McEwen & Wills, 2019). Elementary-aged children also require health-related skills and knowledge that is needed to enact the specific behavior.

First, teachers at school need to repeat their actions a number of times. This is because children’s cognitive capabilities such as imagination and memories are not developed fully yet. Second, the action of teachers that they would like the elementary-aged children to imitate needs to be performed within the cognitive system. Young children imitate the behavior of their models because of reinforcement. As mentioned earlier, reinforcement involves giving rewards or punishment to an individual for achieving success or failure to fulfill the expectations of an individual.