Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System
Charlie is a 53-year-old man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. His treatment has been only modestly successful in delaying the progression of the disease, and he has recently relapsed. His medical team decided to administer aggressive chemotherapy. Knowing that the intensive treatment would have a destructive effect on Charlie’s bone marrow, they removed stem cells from his blood before the chemotherapy began. Afterward, the stem cells were returned by IV to reestablish his bone marrow function. Answer each question completely, using at least 3 correctly cited references.
1. Outline the therapeutic advantages of an autologous stem cell transplantation on Charlie’s bone marrow and immune system.
2. Before harvesting stem cells, a cytokine growth factor is administered to the patient. What is the benefit of this procedure? Explain the therapeutic effect.
3. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease involving B and T lymphocytes. For what aspects of the immune response are these cells responsible? Explain their function at a cellular level.
4. When considering erythrocytes, describe how the body is able to meet hematopoietic demand in conditions such as hemolytic anemia or blood loss.
5. Construct a patho flow chart for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Include effects on organs and body systems.
Case Study: Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Question 1. The therapeutic advantages of an autologous stem cell transplantation
Stem cells are important to the body when they begin to proliferate because they are pluripotent cells with the ability to differentiate into any cell that the body needs (Simon, 2013). If Charlie’s stem cells are introduced to the damaged tissue, the bone marrow, the host or graft tissue is not at risk because the stem cells will proliferate and regenerate the bone marrow.
Question 2: The benefit of administering a cytokine growth factor before harvesting stem cells
The benefit of administering the cytokine growth factor is to facilitate the growth and proliferation of stem cells when cytokines are released, especially the Cerebrospinal Fluid (Verra, 2017). The therapeutic effect of such process is that the stem cells will facilitates the growth of new healthy skin tissues, fastens collagen growth, and makes it possible to form new tissue to cover the scar with healthy tissue.
Question 3: The aspects of the immune response are these cells responsible
T lymphocytes are part of the cell mediated immunity using cytotoxic and helper T cells. Lymphomas affecting B and T lymphocytes would completely compromise the adaptive immune system (Non- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, 2015). B lymphocytes regulate humoral immunity through the use of antibodies and primarily defends against bacterial infections
Question 4: The body able to meet hematopoietic demand in conditions such as hemolytic anemia or blood loss
When the body experiences extensive erythrocyte loss, the kidneys will secrete EPO and while the liver and spleen also help to increase RBC production. There can also be redistribution of red bone marrow for yellow.
Question 5: A Patho flow chart for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is a disease that results from excess production of lymphocytes. Treatment include chemotherapy, radiation, etc.
Non-Hodgkin’s has several variations and classification is based on cells affected, B-cells or T-cells (Verra, 2017).
DNA mutations associated with cancer is the only known cause of NHL
|Signs and Symptoms
Enlarged lymph nodes, reduced weights, fever, sweating and chills, swollen abdomen, chest pains, hard or difficulties in breath and cough, and fatigue
Starts anywhere in the body because lymph surrounds the body and has lymphocytes.
Spreading depends on the type of lymphoma, indolent or aggressive lymphoma.
-Palpitation of nodes of lymph,
-blood and urine test,
-CT scan, MRI, and PET
–observe cancerous cells in the bone marrow
-Surgery is used only to remove lymph tissues to allow NHL examination
No interventions if the nature is indolent NHL.
-radiation, chemorethapy, and medications can be used for aggressive NHL
-injection of stem cells to form new tissues/ healthy cells.
-Causes week immune system, second cancers, and infertility. People will have high risk of lung disease, kidney problems, heart failures, thyroid infections
Indolent NHL have a survive rate of up to 7-10 years after diagnosis and can be cured at stage one or two. Aggressive NHL needs early treatment because if the severe symptoms at manifestation. The survival rate is two years if relapse occurs.
-Ineffective breathing patterns due to mediastinal lymph nodes
-fatigue after intake of chemotherapy.