Write a 6 to 8 page scholarly paper on a disorder. Your paper should conform to current APA guidelines and should include a minimum of four peer-reviewed articles or texts published within the last ten years. It should address the following areas:
- Prevalence of the disorder
- The underlying pathophysiology
- Available treatments, both nursing and medical
- The usual prognosis or life expectancy associated with the disease
- Associated signs and symptoms
- Nursing considerations and relevant plan of care for a patient with the disease
It is also known as the manic depressive condition. This type of disorder is characterized by a dramatic shift in energy, activity level, and mood, which tend to affect individual’s ability to carry out their daily operations. Bipolar disorder can be categorized into three; bipolar 1, which is characterized by a manic episode that lasts for one week and may require urgent hospital care. In this category, depressive episodes occur, and they may last around two weeks (NIH, 2021). The second type is bipolar II disorder, characterized by depressive and hypomanic even though not full-brown episodes like in the first category (NIH, 2021). The third type is cyclothymic, which involves a period of hypomanic symptoms and also depressive signs lasting at least two years. Generally, bipolar disorder is diagnosed during either late or earlier adulthood, even though symptoms may sometimes appear in children. It can also manifest itself in a woman during pregnancy or when giving birth. Due to its nature, it requires lifelong treatment.
Bipolar Disorder Prevalence
Research shows that this disorder is prevalent in people 18 years and above. For instance, around 2.8% of males suffered this disease in the USA in the past years (Keter, 2010). The rate was also similar for females, which shows their disease prevalence is the same. Overall, statistics show that around 4.4% of U.S adult’s citizens have bipolar disorder in their lives. It is also found that around 82.9% of people with bipolar disorder have serious impairments, while around 17.1% have a moderate impairment (Keter, 2010).
Bipolar Disorder Underlying Pathophysiology
Scholars have proven that the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is unclear as they have to remain undetermined. However, many scholars have tried to explain how this condition occurs. Some recent research shows that bipolar disorder may be caused by gene expression and dysfunction in the system of intracellular signaling (Magioncalda & Martino, 2021). Their alteration cause disturbance in the mood-regulating system, which brings about deteriorating conditions. So, by analyzing many scholars’ works, we can conclude that the actual pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is unknown. This is because researchers have proven that so many interactive factors work together and eventually lead to the formation or development of this condition. These factors are thought to include environmental, social, biological, and physical factors (Magioncalda & Martino, 2021). Chemical imbalance in the brain has been associated with the cause of this condition. The chemicals that are believed to play a big role in this include; serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine, and neurotransmitters. Researches show that if there is an imbalance of these chemicals, it leads to bipolar disorder symptoms. For instance, if the level of noradrenaline goes very high, it leads to episodes of mania, and when it is extremely low, the resultant effect is episodes of depressions. Genetics variations are also associated with the cause of the disorder. Many scholars have suggested that genes are key in developing bipolar disorder (Magioncalda & Martino, 2021). The presence of such genes tends to increase an individual chance of getting this condition. These genes are passed on from parents to their offspring. Therefore, the pathophysiology of this condition is not unclear, but many researchers have intervened to explain and proven how it occurs and develops.
Both nursing and medical treatments aim to regulate individual moods, which help reduce the intensity of manifested symptoms. The main goal is to boost the victim’s body to function effectively. The whole process of managing bipolar disorder is complicated, considering it is hard to diagnose it as it varies widely from one person to the other (Geddes & Miklowitz, 2013). For medical treatment, it may involve drugs administration. The most common drugs include; anticonvulsants, antidepressants, medicine to reduce anxiety and sleep, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers, e.g., lithium. Nursing treatment, on the other hand, involves caring activities, which may include; educating the patient, assessing the level of an episode of the condition, counseling, and psychotherapy, and advising the victim on the best lifestyle to adopt, e.g., maintaining a balanced diet (Geddes & Miklowitz, 2013). Other nursing interventions include; ensuring safety for the client, meeting physiological needs, providing communication regarding therapy, promoting the client’s best behavior, and managing all the medications.